Vol 30, 2023

June, 2023

Regular Articles

Cover Page Vol 30
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Essential Goods and Services Needs Among the B40 In the Klang Valley During The COVID-19 Pandemic
Mohd Nazmi Bin Ahmad, Mufdhiati, Doris Padmini Selvaratnam
Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

DOI : https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.01
Page 1-24   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The COVID-19 pandemic created chaos and conflicts in society as there was a disruption in the social and economic spheres of life globally and locally. The pandemic led to the loss of limited economic resources needed to meet the family’s daily demands due to job loss, temporary layoffs, or other circumstances. This study intends to determine the importance of necessities among the B40 group in Malaysia’s Klang Valley. The study also explored the importance and relationship between essential goods and services during the pandemic. The information came from a survey given to the Klang Valley’s B40 group utilizing Facebook (FB) social media and FB Ads. The data were compiled from 363 respondents and summarised using the cross-sectional survey sampling method. The study focuses on the B40 group as Malaysia’s disadvantaged, particularly in obtaining essential products and services due to their vulnerability. Several statistical tests investigate this. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient test analyzes the descriptive statistics analysis. The factors of food, healthcare, shelter, transportation, and formal education have both positive and negative connections with the demographic variables. The studies’ findings revealed that all demographic parameters had positive and negative connections, demonstrating that the B40 Group in the Klang Valley needs all essentials. According to the analysis’s findings, 94% of respondents concur that food should take precedence during the pandemic. A majority of respondents (92%) think that healthcare (91%), shelter, and (84%) formal education is the essential goods and services. The most important food is rice, followed by vegetables, meat, milk for children, and other food categories. Vaccines are the highest priority among healthcare products and services, followed by masks and medications.Additionally, many members of the B40 group have experienced decreased income and possibly job losses due to the installation of movement order control (MCO) during the epidemic. As a result, despite being supported by government aid, the household’s income is insufficient to meet its demands. Therefore, to efficiently channel aid to those in need, the government still needs to increase the distribution of goods and services based on priorities. According to the study’s conclusions, to ensure that everyone has access to their needs, especially in times of crisis, comprehensive, precise data on homes and the availability of necessary commodities and services must be put in place digitally in the future. 

essential goods and services, B40 group, COVID-19 pandemic

Factors Affecting the Decision to Use E-Banking Services: A Case Study of Individual Customers during the Covid-19 Pandemic in Vietnam
Pham Tien Dat, Rector of University of Finance – Marketing, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Nga Phan Thi Hang, Department of Scientific Management of University of Finance – Marketing,Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.02
Page 25-47   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


E-banking applies transactions anytime, anywhere, and 24/7 is also a great benefit. E-banking can overcome the time and space inconvenience of traditional banking. With e-banking, customers can do financial transactions on weekends or late at night without having to set up office hours like when dealing at the counter. Therefore, the study aims to discover the main factors affecting the decision to use E-banking services of individual customers at commercial banks in Vietnam and give managerial recommendations for enhancing E-banking services of commercial banks during the post Covid-19 pandemic in Vietnam. The article method applied structural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSS 20.0, Amos software. Besides, the authors surveyed data collected from 700 individual customers who have registered to use E-banking services analyzed to provide evidence. The study’s main findings explore six key factors affecting the decision to use E-banking services. Six factors included perceived usefulness, ease of use, trust, social influence, innovation, and communication. They had a statistically significant relationship between attitude and decision to accept E-banking services. The study value helps commercial banks constantly invest in E-banking services by applying digital technology, high technology, information, telecommunications, and technical infrastructure into products to enhance customer satisfaction.  

commercial, banks, management, E-banking, services

Perception of Counterfeit Cosmetics among Muslim Consumers in Putrajaya
Farah Lynn Amira Nor Zaidi, Mohammad Aizat Jamaludin, Nur Azira Tukiran
International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART),
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.03
Page 48-71   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This research aims to study the perception of counterfeit cosmetics among Muslim consumers in Putrajaya. This study aims to identify whether demographic backgrounds, especially age, gender, and income level, show a significant difference in the perception of counterfeit cosmetic products among Muslim consumers in Putrajaya. In addition, this study also identifies whether religiosity and brand consciousness show a significant difference in the perception of counterfeit cosmetic products among Muslim consumers in Putrajaya. Two hundred seventy-seven questionnaires were collected from Muslim consumers living in Putrajaya using the convenience sampling method, which was then analyzed using SPSS software. The study’s findings showed that age, level of income, and brand consciousness have a significant relationship with the perception of Muslim consumers in Putrajaya towards counterfeit cosmetics. Meanwhile, the findings also showed that there is no statistical difference between gender and religiosity towards the perception of Muslim consumers on counterfeit cosmetics in Putrajaya. This study contributes to expanding future works of literature of research in the Halal cosmetics area and provides insight to the authorities on the perception of Muslim consumers towards counterfeit cosmetic products, which in turn, helps the authorities further strengthen the administration of the halal cosmetic industry. . 

brand consciousness, counterfeit cosmetics, halal, perception, religiosity

The Effects of Consumers, Competitors and E-Commerce Intensity on Business Performance in Malaysia
Teddy Lian Kok Fei , Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.04
Page 72-98   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The growth in electronic commerce in Malaysia reached a new peak in 2020 with a market value of RM30.2 billion. This paper focuses on the factors that contribute to business performance in Malaysia based on the technology, organization and environment framework. The research included electronic commerce intensity as a mediator and a moderator. The SMART-PLS analyses show that the significant direct factors for business performance are consumer influence, competition influence, and electronic commerce intensity. However, top management’s emphasis on e-commerce and technological competence did not affect business performance. The structural model explained 67.5 per cent of the variance in e-commerce intensity and 66.3 per cent of the variance in business performance. Findings also show that e-commerce intensity significantly mediated competition influence and customer orientation to impact business performance. Furthermore, electronic commerce intensity moderated store presence to produce different levels of business performance. The results of the importance-performance map analysis show that the organization that wants to improve business performance must work to enhance its consumer orientation, counteract the influence of the competition, enhance its e-commerce intensity and enhance its consumer orientation. Finally, the research discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. 

consumer, competitor, business performance, technology, organization, and environment framework, E-commerce intensity.

Food Supply Chain Assurance: Malaysian Consumer Household Perspective
Azreen Roslan1, Farha Ghapar 2, Chew Li Lian3, Siti Norida Wahab1, Ariff Azly Muhamed 1*,
Veera Pandiyan Kaliani Sundram 1*
1Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, UiTM Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Puncak Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA
2Universiti Poly-Tech Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
3Binary Business School, Binary University, Selangor, MALAYSIA

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.05
Page 99-121   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Food supply chain assurance refers to the measures and processes that are put in place to ensure the safety, quality, and reliability of the food supply chain from farm to fork. Food supply chain assurance aims to minimize the risk of foodborne illnesses, ensure the integrity of the supply chain, and build trust between consumers and producers. Hence, this paper aims to provide empirical evidence on the effects of the dimensions of food security and their impacts on the food supply chain in the context of households in Malaysia. This research primarily focuses on individuals as the unit of analysis, and 498 households in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, were invited to take part in the survey. Subsequently, out of the invited households, 350 responses were received and considered valid for data analysis. The results of this study show that each of the hypotheses is true and that food security in the supply chain is affected by all four aspects of food security: how easy it is to get food, how much food is available, how it is used, and how stable it is. This study is one of the first to help partners in the food security supply chain better understand the effects of food security mechanisms. This will help consumers become more aware of the food security supply chain in the long run. 

food accessibility, food availability, food stability, food utilization, food supply chain security

Muslim Consumers’ Credit Card Debt Management
Mohd Afifie bin Mohd Alwi1, Azwan bin Abdullah1, Azyanee binti Luqman 2
1Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia
2Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kelantan, Malaysia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.06
Page 122-154   |


Due to the widespread usage of credit cards, excessive debt is almost inevitable, particularly among Muslim consumers. Therefore, this study explores the understanding of Muslim consumers towards credit card debt management from the Islamic perspective. Semi-structured interviews with 16 participants were used in this study to gather information for the exploratory analysis. Four themes were identified among Muslim users as the primary reasons for understanding the Maqasid Shariah (MS) in credit card (CC) debt management: convenience, emergency, benefit and social status. Furthermore, this study developed a prominent higher-order theme: the priority in credit card debt management. The study incorporates an understanding of respectability in credit card management that is consistent with Islamic teaching.  

credit cards, debt management, maqasid shariah, priority, themes

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Household Expenditures in the EU Countries (The Case of Central and Eastern Europe)
Liudmyla Vilchynska, Maryna Shashyna, Volodymyr Saienko, Oleksandr Starikov
Higher educational institution Podillia State University
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.07
Page 155-174   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The COVID-19 pandemic has been one of the critical significant impact factors at the micro and microeconomic levels and has affected financial resources at both the state and household levels. The article aims to study the pandemic’s impact on the dynamics and structure of household expenditures in Central and Eastern Europe. The research is based on statistical data analysis and trend analysis. Household performance indicators were studied in the period 2017-2021, with a focus on the period 2019-2021, when there was an increase in the incidence of COVID-19. The obtained results allow us to state that households in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe received less income due to the COVID-19 pandemic effect, significantly reduced their expenditures, and preferred savings over investment. Households reoriented their expenditures by reducing spending on recreation and culture, restaurants and hotels, clothing and footwear, transport, electricity, water, gas, housing, food, and non-alcoholic beverages. The share of education costs remained unchanged. In the near term, excluding additional risk factors and uncertainty in current prices, the costs of households in Central and Eastern European countries will decrease. Still, their specific weight in the structure of GDP will decline.  

central and eastern europe, consumption, COVID-19 pandemic, forecast, household expenditures

Examining i-Sinar and i-Lestari Withdrawals Among Employees Provident Fund (EPF) Members During COVID-19 Crisis
Muhammad Amirul Ashraf Abd Ghani, Halimah Awang, Nur Fakhrina Ab. Rashid, Tan Lih Yoong, Tan Chin Lung, Yamunah Devi Apalasamy, Kama Firdaus Subbahi, Norma Mansor
Social Wellbeing Research Centre, University of Malaya
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.08
Page 175- 213   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


To cope with the economic hardship induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, the government has allowed for withdrawals from the Employees Provident Fund (EPF) retirement savings account. This paper explored the impact of COVID19 on the employment and income status of EPF members prompted them to make early withdrawals from their retirement savings through the i-Sinar and i-Lestari schemes as well as usage of withdrawals. The nonprobability convenience sampling technique, specifically the snowball technique managed to capture 2,061 respondents via an online survey. Logistic regression revealed younger respondents, those earning a lower income, and those experiencing income reduction were more likely to utilise both schemes compared to their counterparts. Although most withdrawals were put to good use, it raises concern as the early withdrawals can bring negative consequences to individuals, taxpayers, and the government in future. Findings from this study can serve as a useful input in suggesting some improvements towards the EPF retirement savings scheme. 

COVID-19, Employees Provident Fund, savings, withdrawals,spending pattern

Financial Behavior, Social Relations, Stress and Financial Vulnerability Among Youth in Malaysia
Siti Nurazira Mohd Daud1, Russayani Ismail2, Shamzaeffa Samsudin3, Shahhanim Yahya4
1,2,3Economic and Financial Policy Institute, School of Economics,
Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
4Institute for Youth Research Malaysia (IYRES), Menara KBS, 62570,Putrajaya, Malaysia
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.09
Page 214-239   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The COVID-19 pandemic, the subsequent implementation of the Movement Control Order (MCO), and financial resilience issues during the pre-pandemic period have initiated a study of the extent of financial vulnerability conditions and their link with financial behavior, social relations, and stress conditions among youth in Malaysia. Using data from the Malaysian Youth Index 2020 to include 21,126 respondents, the hypotheses are tested and analyzed through partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques. The findings reveal that social relations are the critical antecedent, followed by financial behavior and stress conditions in predicting financial vulnerability, which implies that financial vulnerability can be solved by improving financial behavior, strengthening social relations, and reducing stress conditions. Furthermore, financial behavior has been found to mediate the relationship between social relations and financial vulnerability, as well as stress and financial vulnerability. The nature of interactions between financial behavior, social relations, stress condition, and financial vulnerability would be helpful information for policymakers in encouraging and improving social building programs in society to equip them with cutting-edge financial decision-making tools. 

financial vulnerability, social relations, financial behavior, stress, youth, PLS-SEM

Does Facebook Advertisement Matter to Entice Customers’ Responses? An Integrated Technology Acceptance Model
C. J. Ng 1 , Y. N. Goh1 , Nabeel Nisar2 , Touseef Hussain Ghumro2 ,C. N. Lim1 ,
1 Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang
2 Department of Business Administration, Sukkur IBA University, Sukkur, Pakistan
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.10
Page 240-270   | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Facebook advertisement for food-related information is widespread on social media platforms. However, the effectiveness of this food advertisement in reaching out to the target consumers needs to get more attention. This study fills the gaps by determining the factors affecting consumer attitudes towards food advertisements on Facebook, their intentions to receive them, and their behavioural response. A research model was developed using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Advertising Value Model. Specifically, this study investigates the relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, credibility, entertainment, informativeness, irritation, personalisation, and privacy concern attitudes towards food advertisements. This study deployed an online questionnaire to collect data from 206 Facebook users. Results show that perceived usefulness, entertainment, informativeness, irritation, and privacy concern significantly affect consumers’ attitudes, as well as the positive effect on consumers’ attitudes towards intention and behavioural response. The outcomes of this study may cast novel insight into the variables that influence consumer attitudes and responses to Facebook food advertisements and provides valuable knowledge for food marketers to create superior advertising campaigns on social media platforms.  

Facebook, advertising, attitudes, intention, behavioural response

Love, Trust and Follow Them? The Role of Social Media Influencers on Luxury Cosmetics Brands’ Purchase Intention Among Malaysian Urban Women
Siti Intan Nurdiana Wong Abdullah, Graduate School of Business, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Sharifah Faridah Syed Ali, Department of Business Studies, Faculty of Accountancy, Management and Economics, New Era University College, Malaysia
Phuah Kit Teng, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Accountancy, Finance and Business, Tunku Abdul Rahman University of Management & Technology, Malaysia.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.11
Page 271-301 | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Luxury cosmetics brands are growing in Malaysia, especially among urban women. In this age, influencer marketing plays a significant role as many luxury cosmetic brands are partnering with social media influencers or key opinion leaders (KOLs) to increase their brand credibility and consumers’ desire. Despite this, the effectiveness of influencer marketing for luxury brands has resulted in mixed findings. As such, this study applies social influence theory to investigate the role of social media influencers (SMI), specifically on the relationships between trustworthiness and attractiveness towards the consumers’ attitude and purchase intention of luxury cosmetic brands. Using a quantitative survey of 240 Malaysian urban women collected from two major shopping malls, the data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling technique. Interestingly, the result of this study confirms that the attractiveness of the SMI was more critical than trustworthiness. Meanwhile, the attitude significantly mediated between attractiveness and their intention to purchase luxury cosmetic brands. This study also presents the implications and recommendations for future research. This study offers a novel perspective and gives insights to marketers of luxury cosmetic brands, especially on the suitability of selecting SMI to attract its target market. 

attitude, influencer marketing, luxury product, purchase intention, urban

The ICT Use by Senior Entrepreneurs
Marlina Muhamad1*, Fariza Hanis Abd Razak2, Haryani Haron 2 ,
1 Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Kedah, Kampus Sungai Petani, Malaysia
2College of Computing, Informatics and Media, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.12
Page 302-329  | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Senior entrepreneurs need help using ICT due to their limited technical skills, but this can be addressed by providing them with simple, familiar, recognizable, and flexible ICT. Previous studies have shown that social media, particularly Facebook, is widely used by entrepreneurs. With the growing aging population worldwide, acknowledging and leveraging the potential of senior entrepreneurs can lead to a more diverse and inclusive consumer landscape. This qualitative study used the semi-structured interview to explore the scenario of senior entrepreneurship, which examined their motivations from push and pull motivation and senior entrepreneurship activities. Ten participants were interviewed, revealing that social media platforms like Facebook and WhatsApp are used for marketing and communication. The study sheds light on the ICTs used by senior entrepreneurs to enhance their business efficiency and sustainability. While social media adoption is helpful, further research is still needed since intrinsic motivations dominate their primary motives. 

social media, ICT, senior entrepreneurship, senior entrepreneurs’ motivations, senior entrepreneurs’ activities

Sorry COVID-19! You Don’t Moderate My Intention to Purchase Functional Foods
Pick-Soon Ling1,2 , Lim-Jin Wong1,2 , Siti Marhamah Mohmed@Wasli 1,2 , Chintra Dewi Anak Bajat 1
1School of Business and Management, University of Technology Sarawak,

96000 Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia.
2Centre on Technological Readiness and Innovation in Business Technopreneurship,
University of Technology Sarawak, 96000 Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.13
Page 330-354  | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Due to the limited evidence on the moderating effect of COVID-19 on functional food purchase intention, this study aims to investigate the factors that significantly predicted the purchase intention of functional foods and the moderating role of COVID-19 on the proposed relationships. In this study, two additional factors (subjective knowledge and health consciousness) are integrated into the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and the impact of COVID-19 is included as a moderator. Convenience sampling has been employed to collect 294 valid responses from consumers in Malaysia and analysed using the Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling. The findings showed that attitudes, subjective norms and subjective knowledge are significantly related to the intention to purchase functional foods. Results from the moderation analysis further found that the impact of COVID-19 has no significant moderation effect on these relationships. This study provided several tremendous implications to stakeholders such as government agencies, authorities, and businesses as they can refer to the findings to understand the factors influencing consumers to purchase functional foods. For instance, specific policies and strategies have to be implemented by government-related agencies and authorities to enhance further the understanding of the functional foods of the public to encourage them to purchase and consume functional foods to improve their health condition.. 

functional foods, purchase intention, theory of planned behaviour, COVID-19, subjective knowledge, health consciousness

Understanding Halal Chicken Consumers: Extended Theory of Planned Behavior and Clustering Approach
Harwati 1,2 , Anna Maria Sri Asih 1, Bertha Maya Sopha 1
1Industrial Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2Department of Industrial Engineering, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.14
Page 355-391  |  Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study aimed to segment consumers and explored the factors that affect consumer awareness of halal chicken in Indonesia. The extended theory of planned behavior was adopted to determine the clustering variables, such as demographics, consumption patterns, knowledge, attitude, intention, and actual action. 1185 respondents in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, participated in the stratified random sampling. The K-means algorithm classified halal chicken consumers into three groups: “credence consumers” who have halal integrity (44%), “moderate consumers” who are rational in their purchasing (21%), and “apathetic consumers” who seem to lack knowledge and enthusiasm for implementing halal principles (35%). An indepth profiling evaluation of the consumers’ characteristics revealed that in all clusters, religious belief showed to influence willingness to pay (WTP) for halal chicken. The result also revealed that higher consumer income levels do not necessarily lead to a commensurate increase in WTP.  

K-Means clustering; halal; chicken meat; behavior; consumers

Factors Affecting Savings for Low-Income Households in the Northern States of Malaysia
Saidatulakmal Mohd, School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Nurul Syifaa Mohd Shakil, Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Selangor, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Selangor, Malaysia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.15
Page 392-414  |  Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Low-income households are those with lower incomes than most households in the region. In Malaysia, a low-income household earns less than RM 4,500 per month. Savings issues for low-income households are rarely discussed. This is because, logically, how can these low-income households save when their money is barely enough to cover their basic needs? Nonetheless, despite limited research, there is evidence that low-income households save. This study aims to identify the type of savings of low-income households. According to this study, low-income households do save. The methodology used in this study is multinomial logistic regression. The result of the study shows that strata, household size, number of income earners, the ability of households to save, and perception of households in access to higher education are the factors influencing low-income households’ savings. This study implies that low-income households face numerous obstacles that make saving difficult, including low-income levels, limited access to financial products and services, and a lack of financial literacy.  

low-income households, a savings factor, Malaysia

Determining Entrepreneurial Intention Among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
Azlin Shafinaz Arshad , Siti Nur Nazmin Abdul Rahim , Yasmin Kamall Khan
Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kampus Puncak Alam, Cawangan Selangor, Malaysia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.16
Page 415-431  |  Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


One of the main issues many countries face is unemployment. Entrepreneurship has been acknowledged as a means of solving unemployment problems. The study aims to determine the factors influencing the entrepreneurial intention of undergraduate students after having exposure to entrepreneurship subjects. This study adopts a quantitative approach using an e-survey and was distributed to students in one of the higher learning institutions in Malaysia. A stratified sampling method was chosen and only 100 responses can be used for further analysis. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Results of the study show that personal attitude and family influence have a significant relationship with students’ intention to start a business. However, there is no significant relationship between perceived behavioral control and entrepreneurial intention. The study has provided valuable insights for the university to develop more effective entrepreneurship programs besides providing support to those who are passionate to go into business. 

entrepreneurial intention, family influence, personal attitude, perceived behavioral control

The Influence Factors of Job Demands Toward Mental Health Among Academics in Public Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia: A Conceptual Paper
Siti Rosnita Sakarji 1, Abdul Kadir Othman2, Ayu Kamareenna Abdullah Thani3, Nurbarirah Ahmad4,
1,3Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA Kelantan Campus, Malaysia 2Institute of Business Excellence (IBE), Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia 4Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA Melaka Campus, Malaysia
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.17
Page 432-452  |  Download PDF   |  ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Mental health has gained a lot of attention recently, especially because of the COVID-19 outbreak. COVID-19 compelled learning systems to transition away from face-to-face interaction and towards online learning. While most studies have focused on its influence on students, the academics have received little attention. Concerning it, this study aimed to create a theoretical framework that explained the influence of job demands on academics’ mental health. This conceptual paper explained how job demands (workload, role conflict, work-life imbalance) link demanding and resourceful aspects of one domain to outcomes in the other domain, using insights from the Job-Demand Resources model, which postulates a health impairment and motivational process. Self-administered online survey techniques will be implemented to obtain responses from the respondents. The structure, reliability, and validity of this unidimensional with a few items measured was constructed and focused on four independent heterogeneous samples of academicians employed in Malaysia (N=370). Three hypotheses were formulated in this conceptual paper based on the previous considerations and the JD-R model assumptions. The contributions and implications of this study are discussed especially those that will benefit the developing country context, Malaysia. 

: job demands, workload, role conflict, work-life imbalance, mental health

A Study of Financial Behavior Among Urban Older Chinese
Shyue Chuan Chong 1, Zun Khan Andaeus Neoh2, Hui Shan Lee 3,
Pei Yew Mah4, Diep Thanh Tung5
1Tunku Abdul Rahman University of Management Technology, Malaysia
2New Era University College, Malaysia
3,4Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
5Tra Vinh University, Vietnam

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.18
Page 453-47
3  |  Download PDF   |  ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Older Malaysian Chinese has one of the highest mean incomes among the other ethnicity in Malaysia. As these individuals grow older, their savings and retirement fund will dwindle and are insufficient for their spending. As a result, these individuals will seek to earn extra income from investment so that they could save more for their children and lifetime care. However, investment is subject to risk. Thus, this study examines the effect of gender, age, financial satisfaction, financial knowledge, and bequest motives on older Malaysian Chinese financial risk tolerance. In this study, the target sample was those Chinese aged 50 or older residing in Selangor, Malaysia. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the purposive sampling method. As a result, the survey covered a sample of 263 completed cases. The multiple regression analysis shows that males with optimal financial knowledge, altruistic personality (unselfish and concern for other people), and variables positively influence older Malaysian Chinese’s financial risk tolerance (risk-taker). At the same time, ages and financial satisfaction variables are negative and significantly influence financial risk tolerance (risk- averse). Lastly, these findings may contribute to the relevant authority, such as retirement fund providers, to formulate a proper long-term plan to ensure Chinese older Malaysians’ individual and family financial stress during retirement. 

bequest motives, demographic, financial knowledge, financial satisfaction, risk tolerance

The Moderating Effect of Household Income on the Determinants of Parental Contribution to Children in Malaysia
Nuraini Abdullah1,Mohamad Fazli Sabri2, Siti Shazwani Ahmad Suhaimi 3, Muslimah Ithnin 4, Amirah Shazana Magli 5
1Department of Business Faculty of Business & Communication, Universiti Malaysia Perlis,

2,3,5 Department of Resource Management & Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
4 Southeast Asia One Health University Network (SEAOHUN)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.19
Page 474-501  | Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Parents undertake the heaviest responsibility ever to prepare children for a brighter future. The study identified predictors towards parental contribution included parental characteristics, child upbringing, parental purchasing behaviour and financial strain. The moderating role of household income also was addressed. The study surveyed 2,182 respondents from low-income households with children under six years old and found that parental contributions towards their children’s upbringing were significantly influenced by household income. Parental characteristics were detected as important drivers of parental contribution; child upbringing and parental purchasing behaviour influence parental contribution positively, but the negative effect of financial strain was revealed. On the other hand, the upbringing of the children and parental contribution made by parents are significant in deciding the household income. The study highlights that parental contributions play a crucial role in shaping children’s character and development. Appropriate investments in children are essential to ensure they become decent human beings. Furthermore, the study underlines the practical implications for parents, government, and non-government organizations regarding investment in children. It is suggested that benefits, such as allowances provided by the Department of Social Welfare, should be allocated to needy families so that parents can invest in their children’s future. This study emphasizes the importance of investing in children from low-income households to ensure a brighter future, and government and non-government organizations must support these families. 

child upbringing, financial strain, household income, parental contribution, parental purchasing behaviour

Iban Women Development and Empowerment: Role of Iban Women as Breadwinner in the Family
Anita Rosli1,2, Juniza Md Saad1,2, Tunung Robin3, Adrian Daud1,2, Shairil Izwan Taasim1
1Department of Social Science and Management, Faculty of Humanities, Management and Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus
2Institute of Ecosystem Science Borneo, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus
3 Department of Science and Technology, Faculty of Humanities, Management and Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v30.20
Page 502-533 |  Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Dual-income families are growing in the new millennium due to high living costs. Nowadays, women also play the role of breadwinners in the family, being in the workforce or working part-time. Many Iban working women and full-time homemakers are involved in side-income activities to earn additional income for the family. It is often involved them performing several activities to earn additional income for their family. This study investigates the role of Iban women as breadwinners involved in side-income activities in Sarawak by identifying types of side-income activities and barriers to side-income activities, thus proposing relevant training or programs to support and encourage their involvement in side-income activities. The study employed a descriptive research design, and 325 Iban women participated in this survey. Based on the survey, there are three main side-income activities among respondents, i.e., farming, handicraft making, and business. However, there are three main barriers to conducting side-income activities, i.e., a need for knowledge and skills in specific fields, marketing and promotional problems, and financial constraints. Based on the problems, three suggestions have been proposed by a high percentage of respondents, i.e., marketing and promotional assistance, business and entrepreneurship courses, and financial assistance. The selection of appropriate training and programs is crucial as the training and program should be need-driven oriented because only some of the training or programs could fit the needs of Iban women. The side-income activities among Iban women benefit the family, develop Iban society, and encourage Iban women’s development and empowerment in Sarawak. 

ethnicity, Iban women, breadwinner, dual-income household