Vol 29, 2022

December, 2022

Regular Articles

Cover Page Vol 29
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Yesterday in a Nutshell: Unveiling Malaysians’ Experience and Satisfaction of Visiting Museums
Goh Poh Jin, Fitriya Abdul Rahim, Mahendra Kumar, Zufara Arneeda Zulfakar, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Page 1-21   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Museums started as a place to preserve history and heritage and have grown to provide a space for cultural sharing and providing prodigious experiences to the visitors. Such experience influences satisfaction which in turn will invite more visitors to the museums. This is vital in ensuring the sustainability of the industry as the younger generation tends to turn away from visiting museums. In studying the matter, The Experience Economy Theory (EET) is applied to understand the experiences obtained by the museum visitors, which affects their satisfaction level as well as the moderating effect of personality. This study employs quantitative analysis with the use of PLS-SEM software. Aesthetics and entertainment showed a significant relationship in influencing the satisfaction level of museum visitors in Malaysia. Museums should be focusing on these elements to improve the values of museums beyond just providing information to visitors in hopes of not only preserving the items of heritage but also preserving the museum-going culture in the future. 

Experience, Malaysia, Marketing, Museum, Satisfaction

A Structural Model of Factors Influencing Behavioural Intentions of Students to Use E-Learning in Malaysia
Teddy Lian Kok Fei, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Tan Shiuh Hui, Fourseven Media Sdn Bhd

Page 22-46   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


When the Malaysian government imposed the Movement Control Order (MCO) on 18 March 2020 to deal with Covid-19, universities had no choice but to replace physical classes with e-learning classes. This study investigated the influence of five factors, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social influence, hedonic motivation and self-efficacy, on students’ behavioural intentions to use e-learning in Malaysia during the MCO. Partial least squares analysis of 238 students from three Malaysian universities revealed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, hedonic motivation and social influence together explained 53.7% of the variance in e-learning. Nevertheless, self-efficacy did not contribute directly or indirectly, to intentions to use e-learning. The study also confirmed the role of perceived usefulness as a mediator for hedonic motivation and social influence. Theoretically, this study has filled a gap in the literature on elearning in Malaysia and demonstrated the applicability of an eclectic approach that combines variables from different theories. Findings from this study imply that policymakers, university staff and developers of e-learning systems should ensure that e-learning systems are designed such that their perceived usefulness and ease of use can attract more students to use them effectively, even in the post-pandemic era. Furthermore, more efforts are needed to ensure e-learning is fun-filled, exciting, and fulfilling rather than difficult and tedious. Social influence is also crucial in supporting the success of e-learning. In this context, the role of professors, university administrators, parents and friends is paramount in providing guidance and making sure that students can benefit fully from e-learning.  

E-learning, Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, Social influence, Hedonic motivation

Blog Influence on Purchase Intention of Beauty and Cosmetics Products: The Psychological Antecedents
Cheng, W.H., Goh, Y.N., Universiti Sains Malaysia
Zainal, N.N., Universiti Teknologi MARA
Janifer Lunyai, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Page 47-73   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study investigates the psychological antecedents on consumer purchase intention of beauty and cosmetic products. The psychological antecedents include advertising intent, experience goods, brand awareness, perceived credibility, and perceived usefulness. Meanwhile, attitude is posited to mediate the relationships between psychological antecedents and consumer purchase intention. This study was quantitative, utilising of cross-sectional design, in which the data were gathered through a survey. This study focused on the consumers of beauty and cosmetic products in Malaysia. A structured self-administered survey involving 175 participants was conducted. PLS-SEM was used to analyse the collected data. Statistical tools, IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23.0 and Smart PLS version 3, were used for data analysis and hypothesis testing. The results showed that advertising intent, brand awareness, perceived credibility, and perceived usefulness are related to purchase intention. Surprisingly, experience goods did not have any influence on purchase intention. Also, attitude towards sponsored recommendation posts did not mediate the relationship between experience goods and purchase intention. Nevertheless, this study sheds some light on the values– attitude-behaviour hierarchy on purchase intention. 

Purchase intention, Advertising intent, Brand awareness, Perceived credibility, Perceived usefulness

Does Financial Planning Moderate the Relationship between Productivity and Wellbeing of Sarawak Paddy Rice Farmer?
Azra Tilai, Chin-Hong Puah, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Rayenda Khresna Brahmana, University of Bahrain

Page 74-107   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Despite having a vital role in national food security, there is an inadequate emphasis on the smallholder paddy farmer’s productivity and wellbeing. Previous studies regarding productivity and wellbeing relationships have no consensus. This research offers financial planning as moderation in the issue of productivity and wellbeing for Sarawak’s paddy rice farmers. A face-to-face interview was carried out with 115 paddy farmers. We ran the OLS regression along with an instrumented regression to eliminate reverse causality effects. This study shows that wellbeing improves as productivity and financial planning progress. Farmers are less likely to achieve happiness when their health condition deteriorates. The moderating role of financial planning on the relationship between productivity and wellbeing is not statistically significant. Results indicate that productivity and happiness do not rely on financial planning for paddy farmers. The research provides a basis and guidelines for policymakers to create financial awareness and provide evidence for corresponding studies to determine the role of financial planning for agricultural farmers in both developed and developing countries. 

Financial planning, Productivity, Happiness, Farmer wellbeing, Agricultural finance

Consumer Perception on Food Safety of Online Food Delivery Services in Malaysia
Norasmah Kasmani, Farah Ayuni Shafie, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Siti Shahara Zulfakar, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Page 108-134   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study determines the food safety knowledge and perception of Online Food Delivery (OFD) services’ consumers and its association with sociodemographic factors that influence the use of OFD services. The analysis was based on data collected through a cross-sectional survey in Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia, which described the OFD service consumer’s knowledge and perception of hygiene, time-temperature abuse, food contamination, and foodborne illnesses. The validated food safety questionnaire was developed and completed by 437 participants. The results showed that consumers have a good and adequate level of knowledge and perception of food safety of OFD services. Logistic regression analysis showed that a high level of education contributes to consumer perceptions of OFD services’ food safety. Most consumers have never experienced symptoms of food poisoning from ordering food online; therefore, they felt more confident with the food orders made and were willing to cooperate in providing feedback on the quality of food received and make complaints to the authorities in the event of symptoms of food poisoning through OFD services. 

Consumer, Knowledge, Perception, Food safety, Online food delivery services

Green Human Resource Management Practices and Pro-Environmental Behaviour: Pathways Towards Organisational Sustainability
Ahmad Nizan Mat Noor, Zulaiha Ahmad, Nurul Fazilah Baharudin, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 135-153  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Growing environmental concerns have become the basis of the organisation’s “go green” definitions. Eventually, Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) practices are getting more consideration among the environmental activities as well as human resource support through green practices by the organisation. The goal of this study is to scrutinize the connection between GHRM practices such as green recruitment and selection, green environmental training and development, green compensation and reward, and green performance evaluation with pro-environmental behaviour among the manufacturing employees in Malaysia. In this study, a questionnaire was used to gather data from 536 respondents, which were then analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between predictor variables and proenvironmental behaviour. In conclusion, the findings of this study may assist, as a recommendation, Malaysian manufacturing industries in better understanding the importance of GHRM practices towards organisational sustainability by enhancing pro-environmental behaviour. 

Green compensation and reward, Green environmental training and development, Green human resource management, Green performance evaluation, Green recruitment and selection, Pro-environmental behaviour

The Influence of Social Capital on Knowledge Sharing among Farmers in Malaysia
Amir Imran Zainoddin, Mohd Rizaimy Shaharudin, Nur AmalinanAziz, Nor Hidayah Hassim, Ahmad Syahmi Ahmad Fadzil, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 154-178   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The study intended to explore the influence of social capital in terms of structural, relational, and cognitive dimensions on knowledge sharing among farmers working in two community projects: (i) Paddy in Kedah and (ii) Chilli Farming in Kelantan. A total of 140 usable responses were received from farmers, who were also the study respondents. The analysis was conducted using SPSS and PLS-SEM. As such, the study’s intention to uncover the role of social capital on knowledge sharing among farmers was guided by the philosophical basis of social capital theory to assess the impact among farmers who participated in the CSR activities through the concept of Creating Shared Value (CSV) programme. The results of the study unveiled relational and cognitive dimensions to influence knowledge sharing significantly, whereas the structural dimension was found to be statistically insignificant. These outcomes were expected to benefit new and current research, especially in bridging the knowledge gap business–community relations in CSR. The role of social capital is significant for community development as it provides available resources that help to support individuals through their business-driven ventures. 

Corporate social responsibility, Knowledge sharing, Multinational company, Social capital

Purchasing Behaviour Of Sustainable Apparels Using Theory Of Planned Behaviour: A Predictive Approach
Rinnitha Ramany, Yamunah M. Mohan, SEGi University
Tak-Jie Chan, Multimedia University
Teck-Chai Lau, Taylor’s University

Page 179- 215   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Sustainability has become a growing trend in the fashion market worldwide, and there is an increasing demand for sustainable apparel by consumers. Fashion retailers need to identify and understand factors that influence consumers’ purchase behaviour in the sustainable apparel context. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors influencing the purchase behaviour of sustainable apparel among Malaysians using an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour. A questionnaire was distributed to 250 respondents through social media with 225 valid responses. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) through the SMARTPLS 3.0 was conducted to analyse the data. It is found that social norm, environmental consciousness, and social media usage have a significant relationship with purchase behaviour of sustainable apparel, while attitude and perceived behavioural control has not. The study contributes to the green marketing scholarship by incorporating environmental consciousness and social media usage to extend the TPB, which provides relevant strategies for the retail apparel stores as well as Malaysian Consumers Associations (FOMCA) to promote sustainable apparel. The conclusion, several strategic implications, and suggestions for future study were offered. 

Environmental consciousness, Purchase behaviour, Social media usage, Sustainability, Theory of Planned Behaviour

Use It or Not to Use It? Mobile Wallet Usage Intention Amidst Covid-19 Outbreak among Malaysians
Muhammad Faizal Samat, Wan Saiful ‘Azzam Wan Ismail, Hardy Loh Rahim, Nur Amalina Awang, Siti Nor Adawiah Hussin, Norazlan Anual, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 216-232   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The coronavirus outbreak has necessitated physical distancing to be ruled out as a measure to control the virus transmission. The pandemic has also called forth an alternative among Malaysians to continue their livelihood, including opting for mobile wallets during routine business transactions. Despite the growing number reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, the 40% increase has yet to reach the optimum level of usage, indicating that mobile wallet use will remain relatively low. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate mobile wallet usage amidst the COVID-19 pandemic by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The present research was conducted nationwide, involving a sample size of 452 who completed the distributed questionnaires. The analysis of data utilised the Smart Partial Least Square (SmartPLS). The results show a significant relationship between perceived usefulness and attitude towards mobile wallet usage. The respondents believe that using mobile wallets would be beneficial to them. In addition, perceived ease of use is also found to be significant, and the respondents believe that they do not require much effort to use a mobile wallet. The attitudes towards using mobile wallets have also observed a significant relationship with the intention of Malaysians to use them. For future research, it is recommended that the study is conducted with larger sample size and that the integration of a qualitative approach is considered to better understand the usage of mobile wallets in a similar context. 

Mobile wallet, Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, Attitude towards mobile wallet usage, Intention to use mobile wallet

Baby Boomers Purchase Intention of Healthcare Products Using Mobile Phone
Nadrul Shaqman Nor Zainal, Nor Hashima Hashim, Wan Kalthom Yahya, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 233-250   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The use of smartphones or mobile phones allows anyone to do online shopping. In Malaysia, there are many online consumers, and these consumers are from different cohort generations. Consumers from different age groups shop for different products for their daily needs. Extant online literature found that consumers use utilitarian shopping value and electronic word of mouth (eWOM) before purchasing. Furthermore, personal innovativeness contributes to the propensity of consumers to make online purchases. This study used the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework to test the model. A quantitative approach is applied in this study, using the data of a self-conducted online questionnaire. A total of 198 valid questionnaires were used for analysis. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. Personal innovativeness was the primary factor influencing online purchase intention of healthcare products followed by electronic word of mouth and utilitarian shopping value. 

Baby boomers, Electronic word of mouth, Malaysia, Online purchase intention, Personal innovativeness, Utilitarian shopping value

Mediating Role of Work Engagement Between Positive Emotions and Individual Work Performance in Banking Industry, Peninsular Malaysia
Abidah Saad, Syarifah Mastura Syed Abu Bakar, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Suhaida Ishak, IUKL University
Harpajan Singh, INTI International University
Sukjeet Kaur Sandh, Taylor’s University
Nor Asiah Mahmood, Prince Sultan University

Page 251-277  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study focuses on work engagement (WE) as the mediator that contributes to individual work performance (IWP) in organisations. The two independent variables: positive emotion and work engagement, are discussed in this research. Work engagement also acts as a mediator variable. Altogether, 169 employees from the banking industry in the Klang Valley and Peninsular Malaysia responded to the self-administered questionnaires. We used the Self-Determination Theory to examine the relationships between positive emotions, work engagement, and individual work performance. Based on Structural Equation Modelling- Partial Least Squared (SEM-PLS), findings from this study indicated that positive emotions positively predict work engagement and individual work performance. Another finding is that work engagement partially mediated the relationship between positive emotions and individual work performance. Overall, the findings of this research suggest that organisations must understand the predictors of work engagement, such as emotions, which can then aid them to improve their employees’ individual work performance. 

Work engagement, Individual work performance, Positive emotions, Self-Determination Theory, Social exchange theory, SMART-PLS

Consumer Confidence and Intention to Save During COVID-19 in Malaysia
Nor Asmat Ismail, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Page 278-304  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study compares gender, ethnicity, age, and income groups to the consumer confidence index in Malaysia during the period of COVID-19. Despite the widespread concern about consumer behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Consumer Confidence Index (CCI) measurement using micro-data has gained less publicity. This study aims to look at the four facets of consumer confidence: current personal finances (CPF), expected personal finances (EPF), current economic conditions (CEC), and buying conditions (BC). This study explores the correlation between consumer confidence and willingness to save for future consumption. Simultaneously, this study determines if the pandemic has shifted consumer behaviour towards precautionary savings. An online survey was done to collect data from 681 Malaysians, and the data were quantitatively evaluated using a statistical software package known as SPSS. The findings indicate people are less confident in current personal finance (CPF) than in the other three dimensions, with females being less confident than men, M40 being less confident than B40, and Malay being less confident than other races. This study discovers that Malay ethnic groups are 3.49 times more likely to have the intention to save than other ethnic groups. B40 households are 1.294 times more likely to save than other income groups. Consumers with less confidence in their buying condition are 0.689 times more likely to have the intention to save. Consumers who lack confidence in their finances are 0.613 times more likely to save. In contrast to others, a consumer who is less confident in the present economic climate is 0.306 more likely to have the intention to save. The findings suggest that government financial help is essential to instil consumer confidence in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, justifying financial aid programmes targeted at B40 families, small enterprises, and job creation. 

COVID-19, Consumer confidence, Precautionary saving, Malaysia

Understanding the Drivers of Passengers’ Intention to Engage in Digital Multi-Sided Ridesharing Platforms: Moderating Impact of Openness to Experience and Perceived Risk
Dewan Mehrab Ashrafi, University of Liberty Arts Bangladesh
Noor E Zannat Rubina Easmin, United International University
Rabiul Hossain Dovash, East Delta University

Page 305-351  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study examines the effect of consumers’ value and risk perceptions on non-users’ willingness to use digital multisided ride-sharing applications. The determinants of perceived value and risk have been analysed as secondorder constructs, constituting their first-order value and risk dimensions. Following a quantitative approach, responses were collected from 339 participants using convenience sampling method. PLS-SEM was performed and findings indicated that perceived value and risk had significant effects on non-users’ willingness to avail ride-sharing services. This study also highlighted that openness to experience and perceived risk showed a significant moderating effect on the relationship between perceived value and users’ willingness to adopt ride-sharing services. The findings provide robust insights for market experts, entrepreneurs, and policymakers on understanding the key drivers of non-users’ adoption of ride-sharing services and how to adopt innovation to make multi-sided platforms reliable and accessible through policy reformations. 

Perceived risk, Ride-sharing, Perceived value, Sharing economy, Personality

The Country of Origin or The Brand Image, Which One Comes First? The Study of Consumer Purchase Intention in East Malaysia
Jati Kasuma, Yusman Yacob, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Amirul Adenan, Sarawak Energy Berhad
Nelson Lajuni, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Herning Indriastuti, Universitas Mulawarman
Halimin Herjanto, University of the Incarnate Word

Page 352-374  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study’s main objective is to investigate the effects of a product’s brand image and its country of origin (COO) on East Malaysian consumers’ purchase intentions. Results from past studies regarding these effects were initially explored to develop early hypotheses, which formed the basis of this study. The constructs of the COO and brand image are studied to gain a better understanding of their relationships and effects on consumer purchase decision. These effects and relationships are then analysed and explored alongside the moderating variables of a product’s high and low involvement levels. A quantitative research method was used, whereby questionnaires were collected from 255 East Malaysian consumers aged 20 and above. Statistical analyses, which include descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analysis, were used to analyse the collected data. The main results indicate that consumers put slightly more importance on the COO compared to the brand image when purchasing a product. East Malaysian consumers have been observed to put more emphasis on the COO and brand image when purchasing high-involvement products. Nonetheless, one limitation of the study has been observed in terms of the product samples that can represent the country of origin, brand image, and low and high involvement levels. This should provide the respondents with a better picture of what the study is investigating. This study attempts to understand the reasoning behind consumers’ behaviour when exposed to certain brands from particular countries of origin, which may help marketers to plan their promotional strategies, especially when entering an international market. Possible future research and marketing implications are also discussed in this study. 

Country of origin, Purchase intention, Brand images, Consumer

The Preference for Palm Vitamin E Tocotrienols and The Willingness to Purchase Among Consumers in Peninsular Malaysia
Norhidayu Abdullah, Kamalrudin Mohamed Salleh, Kalsom Zakaria, Nur Nadia Kamil, Zaida Zainal,Siti Mashani Ahmad, Malaysian Palm Oil Board
Ammu K Radhakrishnan, Monash University Malaysia

Page 375-395  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Palm vitamin E tocotrienols, also known as tocotrienol-rich fractions (TRFs), exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. These characteristics have been scientifically demonstrated to be beneficial to human health. Despite the well-known attributes of vitamin E tocotrienols and abundant credible scientific data on their benefits, there has been no research on the consumption of palm vitamin E tocotrienols from an economic standpoint, specifically on consumer preferences, attitudes, and their willingness to pay, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors influencing people’s willingness to pay for palm vitamin E tocotrienols based on their preferences. This study used descriptive statistics and regression analysis with the aid of SPSS version 20.0. The study applied a quota sampling procedure, stratified by the population of states in Peninsular Malaysia. It was discovered that 419 vitamin users in Peninsular Malaysia only have a rudimentary understanding of the palm vitamin E tocotrienols’ health benefits. The study discovered that tocotrienols in a flavoured chewable tablet are worth more to consumers. The likelihood of consumers purchasing tocotrienols would increase by 67.5% if tocotrienols were switched from capsules to flavoured chewable tablets. In addition, they were willing to pay an additional RM23.30 per bottle for tocotrienols in the form of a flavoured chewable tablet, which is 19.0% more than the retail price of tocotrienols in the form of a capsule. Nevertheless, they expected a significant price discount of RM48.89 (41%), if the tocotrienols were sold online. The findings of this study could be used as a source of reference for researchers in identifying future product development for the palm vitamin E tocotrienols that are appropriate to consumers’ needs and preferences. 

Consumers’ preference, Consumers’ willingness to pay, Palm vitamin E tocotrienols, Tocotrienols

The Long-Term Aspirations of Rohingya Refugees’ Families in Malaysia
Sazlin Suhalmie Mohd Shariff, Peck-Leong Tan, J.S. Keshminder, Arlinah Abdul Rashid, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Mohd Safwan Ghazali, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
Page 396-421  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The Rohingya refugees have often viewed Malaysia as open, although Malaysia is a non-signatory of the 1951 Refugees Convention and its 1967 Protocol. Hence, the number of Rohingya refugees in Malaysia had increased to more than 180000 in 2021. A fundamental problem with managing refugees in Malaysia is that there is no real policy in place and thus no real idea of how many, who, and where they are. Every year, less than one percent of the refugees have been successfully sent to a third country worldwide. The current situation has prevented the refugee resettlement matter in Malaysia from being resolved quickly; instead, it takes years and even decades for a small outcome, often without any apparent end. One of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic is that the resettlement releases to third countries worldwide decreased sharply in 2020 due to international travelling had to be stopped. Every year, less than 5 percent of the world’s refugees will receive a place in a third country (UNHCR Malaysia, 2021). Therefore, it is essential to understand Rohingya refugees’ long-term aspirations to prepare them for the future. The right policy is needed to prepare the refugees to resettle in a third country or eventually return to Myanmar. Therefore, this paper explores the Rohingya refugees’ future aspirations and resettlement plans based on qualitative data through semistructured interviews. This research carried out in-depth qualitative interviews with 10 Rohingya refugees currently living in Malaysia and six Rohingya refugees who have already resettled in a third country and used to stay in Malaysia as their transit country. This research discovered nine livelihood aspirations, three community aspirations, and two-family aspirations shared by the respondents. This study also found that almost all respondents aspire to resettle in a third country in the long run, but the delay in getting resettlement leaves them no choice, but to remain in Malaysia. Hence, this paper concludes that policymakers need to construct settlement programmes to help Rohingya refugees and asylums while they are still in Malaysia and prepare them to settle in the third country eventually. 

Rohingya refugees, Aspirations, Resettlement, Durable solutions

Malaysian Public Sector Employees’ Gold Investment Intention as a Mediator in Gold Investment Behaviour
Husniyah A. R., Ahmad Fauzi, A. W., Mohamad Fazli S.,Mohd. Amim O., Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 422-447  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


One strategy to increase income among households is through investment. The financial and economic well-being of households among investors may increase due to their decisions. Investment in gold is one attractive investment due to its stability in an uncertain economy. This study applied the Theory of Planned Behaviour and included the gold investment knowledge factor. The potential factors, such as financial risk tolerance, gold investment knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention, are determined by their significance of influence on gold investment behaviour. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select urban public sector employees in Peninsular Malaysia, and 403 respondents responded to a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equation modelling analysis revealed that gold investment attitudes and perceived behavioural control significantly influence employees’ gold investment behaviour through the intention to invest in gold. Hence, gold investment intention mediates the influence of attitudes and perceived behavioural control. Meanwhile, gold investment subjective norms, gold investment intention, and employees’ financial risk tolerance directly influence gold investment behaviour. However, gold investment knowledge does not significantly influence gold investment intention or behaviour. These influential factors on gold investment are information that may be included in programme development to improve employees’ financial well-being. In conjunction with this study, future research may focus on other groups of investors. Studies may also include product characteristics such as perceived risk and perceived use, and trust in others, as the potentially influential factors of gold investment. 

Financial risk tolerance, Gold investment, Intention, Knowledge, Perceived behavioural control, Subjective norms

Do Childcare Centres Understand Parents? Looking From the Perspective of Parent Behavioural Intention
Nik Syuhailah Nik Hussin, Zuraimi Abdul Aziz, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
Nurul Ashykin Abd Aziz, Universiti Malaysia Pahang

Page 448-482  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study examines the determinants of parents’ behavioural intention concerning childcare services. The constructs, namely service quality, perceived trust, emotional satisfaction, and behavioural intention were tested. Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response Theory (SOR) and Expectancy Confirmation Theory (ECT), a mediational model was proposed in this study, which linked service quality with customer behavioural intention via perceived trust and emotional satisfaction. Upon employing a purposive sampling method, this study used survey questionnaires for data collection involving a total of 364 valid questionnaires. Data for this study were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 23) and Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) Version 3.2.9 to examine the posited research hypotheses. The results reveal that generally all the relationships tested in this study are supported. This study’s results contribute to the consumer behaviour theory and expand the understanding of how childcare providers can sustain in the market. The paper ends with a discussion, implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research. 

Service quality, Childcare centre, Behavioural intention, Perceived trust, Emotional satisfaction

Single Mother in The Digital Economy: Stimulating Entrepreneurship & Covid-19 Challenges
Noorhaslinda Kulub Abd. Rashid, Suriyani Muhamad, Nor Ermawati Hussain, Noor Haslina Mohamad Akhir, Nizam Ahmat, Yulita, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Page 483-507  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Empowering women is a prerequisite for a healthy nation and robust economic performance. This vision poses huge challenges to developing female entrepreneurs, especially single-mother entrepreneurs. Single mothers are the breadwinners for their family and are often responsible for accommodating the needs of family members. The paper aims to identify the tendency of single mothers to become successful entrepreneurs. Using a quantitative design, surveys were conducted with 521 female entrepreneurs with online businesses. Expensive technology and the lack of relevant knowledge and skills in using digital tools are among the leading constraints single-mothers face in growing their business. Findings showed that single mother entrepreneurs who use internet applications in their business tend to have a high level of skill and high motivation in digital entrepreneurship world. For inclusive growth, it is critical to increasing women’s participation in business and the global marketplace by developing their capacity to fully participate in the digital economy. The effects of COVID-19 which hit for two years gave a lot of lessons and experience to women entrepreneurs to continue trying to face the current economic challenges with full tenacity and patience. The government has provided training to increase knowledge and skills to improve the economy of single mothers as provided by the Women’s Department and Department of Social Welfare. 

Women entrepreneurship, Single mother, Digital economy, Entrepreneurial tendency, Barriers

Socioeconomic Determinants of Highly Empowered CSO Leaders by Age Category among Rural Women in Malaysian Fisheries Community
Zumilah Zainalaludin, Norehan Saidi, Nobaya Ahmad, Juju Nakasha Jaafar, Abdah Md Akim, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 508-538  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This paper reports on rural women leaders who are involved in civil society organizations (CSO) in Malaysian fisheries community. This paper aimed to identify the socioeconomic determinants that predict rural women leaders in highly empowered groups by age category. There were 299 respondents randomly sampled from four zones in Peninsular Malaysia – Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu (Eastern Zone), Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan (Middle Zone), Manjung, Perak (Northern Zone), and Mersing, Johor (Southern Zone). With the advice from the Department of Fisheries Malaysia, Hulu Terengganu and Jelebu were sampled for the freshwater fisheries community, while; Manjung and Mersing were sampled for the brackishwater fisheries community in this paper. Only marital status had significantly (p<0.05) predicted highly empowered older rural women CSO leaders, which is less than a 90.5 percent likelihood of single leaders in the highly empowered groups. Among younger rural women CSO leaders, only water system had significantly (p<0.05) predicted highly empowered young women CSO leaders, which is less than 52.8 percent likelihood leaders from the fisheries community in the highly empowered group. In conclusion, married status is the indicator of the highly empowered group among older rural women CSO leaders; and the brackishwater community is the indicator of the highly empowered group among younger rural women CSO leaders in Malaysia. 

Empowerment, CSO, Gender, Fisheries community, Older women

Islamic Identity and Pro-Recycling: The Role of Spirituality in Sustainability Message Communications
Normalisa Md Isa, Norkhazzaina Salahuddin, Amr Mohammed Nasser Al-Ganad, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Maya Vachkova, University of Exeter
Rana Muhammad Ayyub, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

Page 539-572  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The environment’s health has deteriorated from widespread deforestation to unprecedented global warming. Numerous studies have investigated the impact of pro-environmental campaigns on public concern, but they have had limited success in explaining attitudes toward pro-environmental behaviours such as recycling. The current study examined if moral and Islamic identity framing can influence pro-recycling attitude formation among young Muslims. The primary study comprised a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental study to assess the influence of moral and Islamic framing on gain or loss framing effects on ad attitude, recycling attitude, ad believability, and recycling intention. MANOVA, individual ANOVA, and paired comparison of means were used to test the hypotheses. The study’s results indicated that Islamic framing had the most substantial influence on the dependent variables, followed by morality for both loss and gain-matched messages. Moreover, combining moral and Islamic identity framing did not have the expected cumulative effect hypothesised. The main contribution of this study lies in shifting the focus of sustainability communications from the dominant scientific view of environmentalism to the New Environmental Paradigm, specifically in testing spiritually rooted message frames to foster recycling attitudes. Despite numerous spiritual framing messages being used in global sustainability contexts, this domain remains largely unexplored in the extant literature, so this study serves as an initial foray into this promising research stream. 

Message framing, Moral identity, Recycling, Religious identity, Spiritual paradigm