Vol 27, 2021

August 30, 2021

Regular Articles

Cover Page Vol 27
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Exploring Antecedents of Online Purchasing Behavioral Intention of Generation Z: An Integrated Model of Four Theories
Rohana Ngah, Mohd Ali Bahari Abdul Kadir, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Noor Azlinna Azizan, Nevi Danila, Prince Sultan University
Ramayah Thuraisamy, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Zaleha Mohamad, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu

Page 1-24   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Although many online purchasing behavioral intention studies have been carried out, very few are focused on Generation Z, the generation that is expected to dominate the e-commerce market by 2020. This paper attempts to explore the antecedents of online purchase behavioral intention of Generation Z who was born in the era of the internet and are digital-centric. The objective of this study is to understand the factors that influence the online purchasing behavior of Gen Z through perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and trust. Theory of Perceived Risk, Technology Acceptance Model, Theory of Planned Behaviors, and Customer Socialization Theory were used to provide direction for this study. An online survey was conducted to reach targeted respondents who are known for their internet skill. Findings from the study demonstrated mixed results and some of the prominent variables of purchasing behavior are no longer relevant. Perceived risk did not affect the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use but positively influenced trust. Only trust and perceived ease of use influenced online purchasing behavioral intention while web store design did not contribute to the perceived usefulness of Gen Z. Findings from this study can help retailers and marketers to strategize their marketing to tackle this new group of customers who are expected to dominate the market soon. Future research and recommendations are included. 

Business, Online purchasing behavioral intention, Customer Socialization Theory, Technology acceptance model, Trust, Theory of Perceived Risk, Theory of Planned Behavior, Gen Z

The Rising Cost of Living Among B40 Households in Penang State: Does Lifestyle Matter?
Nor Asmat Ismail, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Page 25-43   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This paper analysed the consumption patterns exhibited by households in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The data were sourced from the Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2016 as obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM). The consumption patterns of B40 households were compared to those of M40 households for the purpose of determining B40 household lifestyles in correlation to their rising cost of living. To this end, an estimation of income elasticities was made based on Engel curves and their quadratic function and by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) methodology. The estimation method chosen was attributable to its consistency with the consumer utility theory. Consequently, the results revealed no significant difference in expenditure recorded between B40 and M40 households pertaining to the aspects of restaurant and hotel, furnishing, household equipment, routine household maintenance, and alcoholic beverages and tobacco consumption. Similarly, their spending on education, clothing and footwear, and health yielded no statistically significant difference, as well as in comparison with T20 households. According to this analysis, the lifestyle held by B40 households is similar to that of their M40 counterparts, which may be linked to the rising cost of living for a B40 household. Henceforth, the findings of this study will provide new information concerning the patterns of consumption and lifestyle held by B40 households. Such insight may prove to be useful for the government towards the planning and development of better support or policies for this particular demography in achieving betterment and well-being. 

Lifestyle, Consumption, Elasticity, Cost of living, B40 households

Understanding the Burnout Experience Among Migrant Workers in China: The Mediating Roles of Hindrance Job Demands and Job Stress
Hu Shi, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Page 44-71   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


In general, role ambiguity and work-family conflict could trigger strain outcomes, such as hindrance job demands and job stress. By drawing on the person-environment (PE) fit theory, this study explored the links between role ambiguity, work-family conflict, and burnout by focusing on the mediating roles of hindrance job demands and job stress experienced by migrant workers in China. To this end, a cross-sectional survey participated by 182 migrant workers in Guangdong, China was carried out, following which the research framework was examined by using PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modelling). Consequently, the results suggested that role ambiguity and work-family conflict were positively related to the elements of hindrance job demands and job stress in the chosen population. Contrarily, the mediating effects of both elements to predict burnout among these migrant workers were absent. Thus, this study offers further evidence for strategies that should be implemented by organisations to reduce hindrance job demands and job stress encountered by migrant workers in China. 

Role ambiguity, Work-family conflict, Job stress, Hindrance job demands, Burnout, Migrant workers

Assessing Urban Households’ Intention to Reduce Food Waste
Kelly Wong Kai Seng, Nik Rozana Nik Masdek, Juwaidah Sharifuddin, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Phuah Kit Teng, Wong, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College
Wang Li, Xiamen University Malaysia
Lai Kok Song, Abu Dhabi Women’s College

Page 72-97   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The issue of consumers food waste continues to be a challenge in Malaysia. More attention is needed from the public to reduce food waste to protect our environment. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the factors related to urban households’ intention towards sustainable food waste management in Malaysia. Using the purposive sampling method, this study collected data from 200 respondents via online survey. On top of that, this study adopted the factor analysis to analyze the relationship between the factors influencing the intention of households to practice sustainable food waste management. The survey’s descriptive findings indicated that respondents have a high intent to practice sustainable food waste management. The majority of the respondents claimed that it could reduce environmental harm and reduce their food expenses. Based on the factor analysis, determinants related to the households’ intention of practicing sustainable food waste management are attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and food waste reduction intention. The Chi-square test showed three important strata groups related to the households’ intended to practice sustainable food waste management, i.e. education background, occupation, and income level. Hence, the government should organize more campaigns to influence society to participate in sustainable food waste management activities. Since respondents have a higher perceived behavioral control to practice sustainable food waste management, local authorities should provide more food waste management information and facilities to encourage households to engage in sustainable food waste management campaign. 

Food waste, Intention, Awareness, Knowledge, Sustainable

Determining Key Factors that Affect Millennial Indonesians in Using Mobile Financial Services Using Rasch Measurement Scale
Subiakto Soekarno, Indra Yudha Mambea, Milan Malinda Mardiyyah, Marla Setiawati, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Page 98-112   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study examines the main factors that affect the millennial generation (Gen-Y) in using mobile financial services in Indonesia using the Rasch measurement scale. Related empirical research in the context of Indonesia is still lacking. This study applies logit regression using the Rasch measurement scale. The proposed model is empirically tested using survey data of 622 selected respondents. By employing Rasch, the principal component analysis of residual shows a level above 40%, which means unidimensionality requirements are satisfied and a person’s reliability score is 0.84. It indicates that our items were good to measure the various ability level of respondents. The regression result shows that perceived usefulness, habit, facilitating condition, and effort expectancy have a significant positive impact on usage behavior. Control variables demonstrate that education (bachelor’s degree) significantly affects Gen-Y users in adopting mobile financial services. The results of this study will be useful not only for banking sectors but also for companies or institutions that intend to make Gen-Y users their target customers and improve their mobile financial services. 

Millennial generation, Mobile financial services, Rasch measurement scale

Determinants of Financial Vulnerability Among Civil Servants in Peninsular Malaysia
Lee May Poh, Mohamad Fazli Sabri, Husniyah Abdul Rahim, Rusitha Wijekoon, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 113-143 |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The effect of the global financial crisis, rising debt, and bankruptcy on civil servants in Malaysia are perturbing. Civil servants need to overcome various money-related challenges (unexpected job loss, higher interest rates than expected, and high debt-to-service ratio) in today’s challenging financial condition, and monetary oversight made in life can have terrible consequences. This study discusses the determinants of financial vulnerability among civil servants in Peninsular Malaysia. The conceptual framework was developed based on the Family Resource Management Model and Life Cycle Theory. Primary data were collected using a questionnaire, and a total of 590 respondents were selected through multistage random sampling. According to Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis, determinants like financial attitude and self-efficacy, except financial literacy, positively correlated with financial vulnerability. Financial management practices were the most significant predictor as indicated by multivariate analysis. Moreover, mediation analysis found that financial management practices significantly mediated the relationships between variables and financial vulnerability. 

Financial vulnerability, Financial literacy, Financial attitude, Selfefficacy, Financial management practices

Job Satisfaction in Moderating the Influence of Debt Behaviour on Financial Strain Among Homeowners
Husniyah A. R., Amirah Shazana M., Mohamad Fazli S., Mohd. Amin O, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 144-167   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Homeownership contributes to better well-being; however, most owned a house through a mortgage loan which may increase debt commitment. The strain on finances was reported to result in negative consequences on households. Supported by Expected Utility Theory, this study aims to determine the factors influencing the financial strain and to ascertain the moderating effect of job satisfaction of Malaysian employees among homeowners. Multi-stage random sampling was utilised in targeting 400 respondents. Civil sector employees’ homeowners were selected to control the income risk. The list of government agencies enabled random sampling of the departments in urban and rural areas situated in four zones. A total of 50 respondents were randomly selected from each department through a list of names provided by liaison officers working in those departments. Selfadministered questionnaires were distributed to the respondents and 322 completed forms were returned. Influential factors on financial strain were debt behaviour followed by financial events, locus of control and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was found to moderate the influence of debt behaviour on the financial strain. Hence, effective debt management should be the focus of the employees as it results in financial strain. Employers should also ensure high job satisfaction among employees to overcome the effect of poor debt behaviour on financial strain. Ignoring these events may impact negatively on job performance as they will be disengaged from their work. 

Debt behaviour, Financial events, Locus control, Job satisfaction, Financial strain

Psychological Factors Contributing Towards Individual Work Performance Among Rohingya Refugees and Indonesian Migrant Workers in Malaysia
Mohd Safwan Ghazali, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
Peck-Leong Tan, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Page 168- 199   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


As of 2019, Malaysia has about 1.87 million low-skilled migrant workers, with the majority from Indonesia. Likewise, there are about 180,000 refugees in Malaysia, especially the Rohingya from Myanmar. This study empirically determines whether Malaysia could replace a portion of the lower-skilled migrant workers that Malaysia’s economy depends on with a group of people indispensable by Malaysia by investigating their psychological factors contributing to individual work performance. Hence, this research distributed questionnaires to equal numbers of employed Rohingya refugees (n = 180) and Indonesian lower-skilled migrant workers (n = 180). The data were analysed using structural equation modelling– partial least square (SEM-PLS) method, SMART PLS 2.0 software. The results showed that that Rohingya workers’ resilience attributes strongly influenced individual work performance, whereas self-efficacy attributes were the main contributor to Indonesian migrant’s work performance. There were significant differences between the two types of migrants in terms of path coefficient. Hence, this implies that the impacts of psychological factors differed between various migrants backgrounds. The study fills a significant gap in comparing psychological behaviour between refugees and economic migrants like the Indonesians. In addition, this study clarifies the factors that are more effective in stimulating work performance according to the type of migrants. 

Refugees, Rohingya, Economic migrant workers, Psychological capital, Individual work performance

Examining Travel Constraints and Perceived Risk on Intention to Travel during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Case of Malaysian Consumers
Norzalita Abd Aziz, Fei Long, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Safwan Marwin Abdul Murad, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Page 200-219   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Tourism industry is susceptible to risks, threats, disasters as well as epidemics. These factors are major constraints towards tourism activities. For instance, the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic in the tourism industry has transformed consumer behaviour in travelling, such as development of negative emotions and mistrust among tourists. Different travel constraints account for different effects on consumer’s intention to travel or to go for holiday. However, what are the most important travel constraints influencing travel intention among Malaysians amid the current pandemic? The question remains debatable. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify this arguable question. Using a quantitative research approach, this study examines the effects of structural constraints (i.e. cost, time, space) and intrapersonal constraints on intention to travel/go holiday among Malaysian consumers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, this study investigates whether perceived risks moderate the relationship between the travel constraints and intention to travel. The findings of the study indicate that intrapersonal constraints have a negative effect on intention to travel, and the negative relationship between intrapersonal constraints and intention will be stronger if perceived travel risks are higher. The findings provide valuable information. Significantly, this information can be used by destination marketers and authorities to develop the right strategies and policies for increasing Malaysian consumers’ confidence towards travel in the future. 

Consumer behaviour, COVID-19 pandemic, Travel constraints, Travel risks, Travel intention

The Mediating Effect of Media On The Relationship Between Consumer Values and Attitudes, Self-Identity, Trust in the Government, and Consumerism Practices Among Students of Higher Learning Institutions
Nurazlina Dol, Elistina Abu Bakar, Zuroni Md. Jusoh, Afida Mastura Muhammad Arif, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 220-244
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Nowadays, consumer issues are becoming more serious, especially those involving online fraud, such as scams. As a consumer, one should take precautions to protect oneself from encountering this problem. Consumerism practices are the key components that provide consumers with strong selfprotection and positive attitudes. Students of higher learning institutions, a large group of mainly young people, play the roles of educated agents of change who may champion the interests of consumers in the future. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of media agents as a mediating variable in the relationship between consumer attitudes and values, self-identity, trust in the government, and consumerism practices. The Social Cognitive Theory and the Consumer Socialization Theory were used in this study to achieve a deep understanding of the concept of consumerism practices. This study involved eight hundred students of higher learning institutions in Malaysia from ten institutes selected by randomised sampling. A questionnaire was created and used for purposes of data collection. Data analysis was conducted in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis using the Analysis of Moment Structural (AMOS) software. The results showed that media agents are partial mediators in the relationship between self-identity and consumerism practices and between consumer attitudes and consumerism practices. It was also found that consumer attitudes, consumer values, self-identity, and trust in the government have a direct and significant relationship with students’ consumerism practices. This study contributes to the theoretical expansion of consumerism practices and serves as a guide for relevant ministries, institutions of higher learning, and consumer associations in their efforts to implement educational activities and programs on consumerism. 

Consumer practices, Self-identity, Attitudes, Trust in the government, Media agent

The Influence of Technology, Content, News Credibility and Brand Trust on Readers’ News Consumption Behavior
Hazliza Haron, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Ahmad Zawawi Ghazali, IDMS Technologies Sdn Bhd
Fazlan Fahme Puzi, Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia

Page 245- 259
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The newspaper industry has been going through massive changes. This is partly due to the technological advances as well as changes in the news consumption pattern of readers. This study examines Malaysians’ news consumption behavior of Malaysian newspapers. It is a quantitative research design that adopts convenience sampling via online survey. A total of 322 samples were collected and data was analyzed using SPSS. The results reveal that a large majority of the respondents read online news rather than printed ones. Even more alarming is the finding that there is a small fraction of Malaysians who seldom or never read news at all. The results also show that technology, content, and brand trust are significant predictors of Malaysians’ news consumption whereas news credibility is not. 

News consumption behavior, Online news reading, Technology, News credibility, brand trust