Vol 26, 2021

July 21, 2021

Regular Articles

Cover Page Vol 26
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Examining Food Bank Attitude, Food Security, Availability to Basic Needs and Psychological Wellbeing: From the Perspectives of University Students as Food Bank Recipients
Erne Suzila Kassim, Ismah Osman, Hanitahaiza Hairuddin, Faridah Haji Hassan, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Muhamad Hanif Asa’ari, Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs
Page 1-21   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Food banks have become one of the initiatives in combating food insecurity in many countries. However, there are debates on how they fulfill the food needs and improve the psychological wellbeing of the recipients. In looking for the confirmation-disconfirmation of the arguments, this study explores how university students as the food bank recipients experience the food relief services and how food bank program impacts their psychological wellbeing. The study that was conducted as a quantitative survey predicted that the food bank availability, as well as the recipients’ psychological wellbeing would improve when there is a positive attitude on the food bank program, positive access to food security and positive access to basic needs. In addition, it was also assumed with the provision of food security, it would improve the recipients’ access to basic needs. Three hundred and sixty-one university students as the food bank recipients participated in the study. Based on the structural modeling of Smart PLS, the findings indicate there are significant relationships between food bank attitude, food security, access to basic needs and psychological wellbeing. Therefore, the study and the findings suggest for an evidence on how food banks are benefiting the psychological needs and help to curb hunger. As food banks have the potential to improve food security outcomes and psychological wellbeing, provision of the program should be made available to address the fundamental needs. Hence, actions within and across government, as well as effective stakeholders’ engagement to deliver coordinated and collaborative response should be sustained. 

Food bank and psychological wellbeing, Food bank for university students, Food security, Food security and material deprivation, Food security and sustainable development goals

A Comparative Analysis of The Legal Norms For e-Commerce and Consumer Protection
Muhammad Nuruddeen, Bayero University Kano
Yuhanif Yusof, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Page 22-41   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


E-commerce transactions are rapidly replacing conventional face-to-face commercial transactions. The old rules and norms governing the sale of goods and services are becoming obsolete and incapable of addressing legal issues emerging from e-commerce transactions. Hence, there is a need for an upgrade of the legal norms, statutes, or rules governing commercial transactions in the present 21st century. To address this challenge, the United Nations (UN) adopted the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on E-commerce (UMLE) in 1996 designed to cater for outdated laws or inadequacy of the national laws which were enacted without e-commerce in mind. The UMLE aims at ensuring uniform and harmonised rules governing e-commerce across the globe. Now, the question is: do countries such as Malaysia, Nigeria, and hosts of others take proactive measures to address this challenge? To what extent? Do the international legal instruments play any role in addressing this challenge? To what extent as well? These are some of the nagging questions that form the basis of this paper. Thus, the objective of the paper is to study key provisions of the UMLE with particular reference to how UMLE comes in to protect electronic commerce consumers. It also explores a comparative analysis of the UMLE as domesticated by several countries identified in this paper. This is done to make appropriate recommendations for improvement. The paper adopts a doctrinal/content analysis and comparative methodologies in achieving its objectives. Relevant provisions of the UMLE, selected local legislation, decided cases, as well as related legal articles were carefully examined. The findings reveal the need for e-commerce clear legal rules in any given country. Although many countries such as Malaysia have so far enacted e-commerce legislation based on the UMLE, the paper further reveals that the UMLE is long overdue for review. The paper, therefore, recommends specific amendments to the UMLE such as inter alia the inclusion of the rights of consumers to obtain receipts for online purchases, elaboration of the definition of e-commerce, as well as the prohibition of inserting unfair trade terms. Countries with or without e-commerce legislation should also effect amendments mutatis mutandis, thereby aligning the norms and rules with the current technological developments and realities. For proper interpretation of e-commerce and consumer protection norms, countries should constantly acquire guidance from cases collated and uploaded on the UNCITRAL website. This will promote international awareness along with a uniform interpretation and application of the UMLE and other legal texts produced by the UNCITRAL. 

E-commerce, Legal norms, Comparative, Uncitral, transactions

The Impact of Social Media on Online Purchasing Behaviour of Consumers: An Empirical Study of Youth in West Bengal, India
Ritwik Maity, Sukjeet Kaur Sandhu, INTI International University
Page 42-79   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The objective of this research is to examine the effect of social media on customer online shopping activity and the intention to buy online in West Bengal, India. To this point, a questionnaire was used as a method to collect primary data from individuals in West Bengal using the probability sampling method that is simple random sampling. The total number of responses collected from individuals using the online questionnaire was 370 out of 100 million individuals living in West Bengal, India. Factor analysis is used to indicate the inter-correlation of independent variables and dependent variables. The Kaiser Mayer Olkin (KMO) value of the variables indicated 0.890, which is in the meritorious category, and the findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between the behavioural factors of societal influence, product preference, variety availability, convenience, and consumer purchase intention. Multiple regression analysis shows that societal influence, product preference, variety availability, and convenience have a positively impact on the consumer’s online purchase intention. According to a multi-regression analysis, 71% percent of individual purchase intentions through online social media impact can be explained by social influence, product preference, variety availability and convenience in West Bengal, India. In addition, recommendations for future studies are made in this research. 

Online shopping, Social media, Purchasing intention, Societal influence, Product preference, Variety availability, Convenience

The Future of Green Food Consumption in Peninsular Malaysia
Phuah Kit Teng, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College
Siti Intan Nurdiana Wong Abdullah, INTI International University
Bernard Lim Jit Heng, INTI International College Subang

Page 80-109   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Over the years, consumers’ attitudes towards sustainable brands have increased significantly. Despite such development for environmental awareness, consumers’ actions do not reflect their intention. Therefore, this study aims to examine Malaysians’ intention to purchase green food in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were gathered from a total of 1200 questionnaires and Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the data. The study contributes to the advancement of knowledge in green food consumerism by expanding the Theory of Planned Behaviour into five components namely attitude (salient belief), attitude (evaluation of outcome), subjective norms (referents), subjective norm (motivation to comply), and perceived behavioural control to explore the future of green food specifically among consumers within Peninsular Malaysia. The result shows that attitude (salient belief), subjective norm (referents, motivation to comply), and perceived behavioural control influence consumers’ intention to purchase green food. Surprisingly, attitude (evaluation of outcomes) does not influence consumers’ intention. 

Green consumerism, Green consumer, Green food, Intention

Peer-To-Peer Accommodation Services in Malaysia: Legal Issues and Concerns
Mahyuddin Daud, Norlaili Mat Isa, International Islamic University Malaysia
Page 110-126   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Peer-to-peer accommodation services (P2PA) have gained popularity by introducing online hosting websites such as Airbnb. Emerging as part of the sharing economy through disruptive technology, P2PA brought unprecedented impacts to the Malaysian housing landscape. This paper examines the scope and legal issues triggered by the expansion of P2PA. Unregistered P2PA has drawn objections from the neighbourhood due to safety concerns, public nuisance, potential loss of tax revenue and noncompliance with zoning laws requirements. Adopting content analysis as the research method, this research finds the need to develop a legal framework regulating STRA in Malaysia. 

Peer-to-peer accommodation, Short-term accommodation, Sharing economy, Disruptive innovation, Airbnb

Revisit Intention for Medical Services: An Investigation on Penang as a Medical Tourism Hub
Siew-Pin Yong, Yen-Nee Goh, Mao-Seng Ting, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Janifer Lunyai, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Page 127-157 |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This research investigates medical tourists’ revisit intention formation by utilizing critical concepts of medical quality, service quality, effective communication, satisfaction, and price reasonableness. A survey was conducted via face-to-face questionnaires to medical tourists who had received medical treatment or healthcare services at Penang hospitals. Perceived medical and service quality has significant associations affecting intentions to revisit hospitals, and satisfaction acted as a significant mediator between medical quality and satisfaction. However, the moderating role of price reasonableness is not supported. The implication of the Push and Pull Motivation Theory and practice are further discussed in this study. 

Healthcare services, Malaysia, Medical tourism, Revisit intention, Satisfaction

Motivation Towards Adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) Services in Retailing Among Malaysian Youth
Noorshella Binti Che Nawi, Yusrinadini Zahirah Md Isa@Yusoff, Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad, Naeem Hayat, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
Abdullah Al Mamun, UCSI University
Anas A. Salameh, Price Sattam bin Abdulaziz University

Page 158-180   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


It is predicted that the Internet of things (IoT) is the future of the business world. In terms of innovation, the adoption of IoT is still in its infancy and many business sectors are still reluctant to adopt IoT due to the lack of consumer acceptance. This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) that features perceived enjoyment, perceived trust, and perceived risk to estimate the motivation towards the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) services in retailing among Malaysian Youth in Malaysia. The quantitative data was collected from a total of 357 respondents from Malaysia and analysed using PLS-SEM. The study findings suggested that performance expectancy, facilitation of conditions, perceived enjoyment, and perceived trust of IoT could positively and significantly influence the motivation to adopt IoT. Perceived risk has a significant but negative effect on the motivation to adopt IoT. This study focused on the perception on the features of IoT as factors towards the motivation to accept IoT. The findings presented important theoretical and practical implications for the development and marketing of IoT in retail industry. Finally, the study presented the limitation and practical implication. 

Internet of Things, Motivation, Partial least square-structural equation model, Malaysian youth, retailing, Malaysia

A Review on Housing Affordability in Malaysia: Are We Doing Fine?
Mohammad Mujaheed Hassan, Nobaya Ahmad, Ahmad Hariza Hashim, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 181- 206   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Housing affordability is continuously a major concern, particularly among individuals residing in the major cities. Housing affordability is measured by two (2) indicators, namely the Median Multiple and Down-Market Penetration. Through the Median Multiple method, the cost of housing median is found to be lower than three (3) times the median household yearly income. Meanwhile, Down-Market Penetration suggests that the minimum cost of the new house, which is set by the private sector without subsidies, is affordable. This article attempts to explore and review the meaning of housing affordability in Malaysia. Reducing the house price, which is the sole method of solving the problem related to the housing affordability issue, is overly emphasised. Instead, more focus should be placed on the addition of supplies and the provision of commodities based on market demand. It should be noted that a more common approach, which includes the method incorporated by the ministries of the government, is crucial to achieving housing affordability. 

Affordable housing, Affordability, Median multiple, Down-market penetration

The Influence of Attitude, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Perceived Attributes of Innovation towards Environmental Management Practices Intention among SMEs
Malisah Latip, Ismawati Sharkawi, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 207-229   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


In recent years, worldwide concern for natural and environmental issues has increased. Therefore, it is crucial to encourage businesses to adopt environmental management practices (EMPs) to mitigate business activities’ negative impact on nature. Knowing that environmental problems can cause detrimental consequences to the lives of human beings and the environment, firms’ owner-managers are encouraged to take a constructive role in redressing the situation. As a way to enhance the understanding of proenvironmental attitudes, the association concerning these attitudes, and the intention to adopt EMPs, owner-managers are the perfect subject to be studied since they are the key decision-makers in the organization. Hence, this study investigates the intention of food manufacturing SMEs in Malaysia to adopt EMPs in their business operations. Two theories were employed as the underpinning theoretical framework: Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory. This study used structural equation modeling (SEM) in analyzing 367 samples from food manufacturing SMEs owner-managers. The results revealed that all factors were statistically significant in influencing the intention to adopt EMPs, namely, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Besides, the perceived attributes of innovation appeared to have direct positive effects on their attitude towards EMPs. The study has expanded on environmental studies literature in employing TPB and DOI theory as a theoretical foundation for measuring SMEs owner-managers’ intention to adopt EMPs. The findings also provide evidence of the owner-managers’ prominent role as their behavioral intention towards EMPs depend on their attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. 

Environmental management practices, Diffusion of innovation, Food manufacturing SMEs, Intention, Theory of Planned Behavior, Structural equation modelling

The Impact of Wasatiyyah/Moderation on Student’s Financial Decisions
Wan Rohaida Wan Husain, Roslily Ramlee, Sharifah Raihan Syed Mohd. Zain, Muhammad Tahir Jan, International Islamic University Malaysia
Page 230-250
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Statistics and surveys of literature to date have revealed a disturbing truth regarding financial prudence among the Malaysian population, particularly the youth. The studies depict this group’s state of being easily overwhelmed by the latest trends, causing them to spend beyond their means due to impulse buying behavior. Individual financial decisions encompass one’s spending, savings, borrowing, and investment activities, which are generally influenced by their materialistic needs and level of financial literacy alike. In consideration of these two main contributing factors, this study aimed to examine the practice of moderation (wasatiyyah) among Malaysian university students in their financial decision-making. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to respondents enrolled in public universities located in central and north Malaysia regions. Subsequently, all data obtained were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM). The resulting findings concluded that there was no mediatory influence of wasatiyyah on students’ financial decisions. Nevertheless, its adoption was comparably influential as the financial literacy exhibited by students pertaining to their financial decisionmaking. Hence, the tested hypothesis in this study is duly supported: the element of wasatiyyah would render students more cautious in financial decision-making processes. 

Moderation (Wasatiyyah), Youth, Financial decision, Financial literacy, Materialism, Structural equation modeling

Unsecured Loan Household Debt in Malaysia
Masturah Ma’in, Nur Fadhilah Hussin, Ruhaini Muda, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Siti Sarah Mat Isa, Melaka International College of Science and Technology
Page 251- 272
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Recently, there are raising concerns on unsecured loan in Malaysia household debt due to its mounting growth for the last ten years. This study investigated the determinants of unsecured household debt loans in Malaysia, whereby the autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) approach was implemented to examine six variables. They included: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Housing Price Index (HPI), Consumer Price Index (CPI), interest rate, and unemployment rate. Here, quarterly data throughout 11 years spanning from 2007Q1 to 2017Q4 were sourced for analysis purposes. The findings revealed that in the long run, a change in income level and interest rate posed significant impacts on unsecured household debts. In particular, income changes positively influenced the unsecured household debts, while interest rate shifts would negatively influence them. Thus, policymakers are recommended to raise the household subsidization for specific groups in the population in the bid to cater to high unsecured loans, which would reflect the income inequality among citizens of this nation. 

ARDL, Household debt, Malaysia, Unsecured loan