Vol 25 (S1), 2020

November 30, 2020

Regular Articles

Cover Page Vol 25 (S1)
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Effect of Student Eating Habits and Implication towards their Health
Khairunesa Isa, Sarala Thulasi Palpanadan, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Page 1-13   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The emerging market of fast food industry around the world is expected to change the eating habits of the current generation, especially among students. In particular, fast food consumption is often associated with its negative impacts on one’s nutrition and health compared to the traditional foods that have been consumed across different populations of varying regions over an extended period of time. Indeed, it is very important to determine food consumption behaviour among students to prevent any implications on their health and behavioural intentions. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to identify university student knowledge of healthy food and the contributing factors towards food selection. A total of 400 students were selected using simple random sampling method, whereby the data obtained were then analysed descriptively via Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The analysis indicated that the respondents had a high level of knowledge about healthy food, with a mean score value of 4.32. Using descriptive statistics, almost 92 per cent of the sampled students preferred choosing traditional food as their everyday meal as opposed to fast food. Meanwhile, price was the main factor that contributed to their choice of traditional food, followed by family influence and peer. Based on Multiple Regression Analysis, the overall findings indicated that 23 per cent of student health was influenced by the contributing factors towards the selection of foods and knowledge of food. In particular, the contributing factor towards food selection was identified as the dominant factor affecting student health. In conclusion, the knowledge about healthy food plays an important role to determinat the level of student and individual health as well. Awareness and knowledge of healthy eating should be disseminated to all groups, since Malaysia is the highest country in Asia with adult obesity. 

Eating habits, Family-influenced, Food selection, Price, Student health

Consumer Protection of False Halal Logo and Misleading Representation under the Consumer Protection Act 1999
Nasihah. N, Elistina, A. B, Afida Mastura, M.A, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 14-26   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The law is the most effective mechanism in imposing liability against a supplier or manufacturer in the issue of false halal logo and misleading representation. This is because the law puts the responsibility on the supplier or manufacturer to ensure that they supply a product that is halal as stated. However, the question arises as to whether the rights of the consumers regarding false halal logo and misleading representation were fully protected under the Consumer Protection Act 1999. Therefore, this article aims to analyze the liability of the supplier or manufacturer under the Consumer Protection Act 1999, concerning matters regarding consumers protection in the case of the false halal logo and misleading representation. The findings of this article revealed that the Part II, V, and X of the CPA 1999 are not sufficient to address the liabilities of the supplier or manufacturer on the issue of false halal logo and misleading representation. This study implies that the Consumer Protection Act 1999 should be reviewed in order to provide consumers with better protection. An effort needs to be done to improve the consumer protection laws in Malaysia, thus growing in tandem with the halal industry. 

Consumer law, Consumer protection, False halal logo, Halal, Misleading representation

Personal and Environmental Determinants of Consumer Legal Literacy among Malaysian Consumers
Norhafifah Samsudin, Elistina Abu Bakar, Zuroni Md Jusoh, Afida Mastura Muhammad Arif, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 27-40   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Legal literacy means whether the consumers have the knowledge and are able to apply the information when they make transactions, and thus more likely know how to seek redress. The objective of this article is to analyze the determining factors of consumer legal literacy among Malaysian consumers. A survey was conducted among 500 respondents who were chosen through systematic random sampling. Standard multiple linear regressions results show that only value, self-efficacy, and peer influence can explain thirteen point four percent (13.4%) variance and the most influencing factor was peer influence. This research holds significant implications for the government, educators, and consumer movements to emphasize effective consumer education programs to increase literacy among consumers. It is also necessary to establish more comprehensive programs, either through formal or informal education, especially in instilling good values among consumers. Self-efficacy and peer influence can be considered in consumer education programs such as those by the Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs, consumer movements, and consumer clubs in schools. 

Consumer, Legal literacy, Peer, Self-efficacy, Value

Barriers to Consumer Self-Protection in the Moneylending Decision Process in Klang Valley, Malaysia
Daljit Kaur Sandhu, Afida Mastura Muhammad Arif, Elistina Abu Bakar, Husniyah Abd.Rahim, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 41-66   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Licensed moneylending industry supports the credit need of Malaysian consumers who have been denied personal loans by the formal banking sector. This research aims to gain insights into the barriers to consumer selfprotection in the moneylending decision process, fortified by the five-step Consumer Decision Process Model. Qualitative research through phenomenology was employed where 14 borrowers were interviewed. Steps taken to analyze the data was done via coding, categorizing and thematizing using the NVivo version 12 software. Based on the research objective, five related areas which were hindering consumers in achieving self-protection were discovered. They were desperation for funds, reliance on friends for moneylender’s information, indifferent attitude towards evaluating alternative contract options, passive role in contract rights and obligations, as well as the reluctance to file complaints. In overcoming these barriers, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government could educate consumers on the concept of lawful moneylending process, importance and benefits of self-protection practices. Furthermore, consumers need to enrich their financial acumen in preparation for the forthcoming wave of online and mobile money lending. 

Consumer self-protection, Consumer decision process model, Moneylenders, Phenomenology

The Determinants of Intention to Practise Solid Waste Segregation-at-Source among Selangor Households
Kai Wah Cheng, Syuhaily Osman, Zuroni Md Jusoh, Jasmine Leby Lau, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 67-90   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The environment is increasingly under threat, especially when it comes to the serious problem of solid waste. It has become a challenging burden in most developing countries, including Malaysia. The aim of this research was to assess the levels of attitude, descriptive norm, injunctive norm, and intention to practise solid waste segregation-at-source, as well as to investigate their inter-relationships with the intention to practise solid waste segregation-atsource. 400 households in townships in nine districts in Selangor have been selected using a multi-stage sampling method. The present research has shown that a large group of households surveyed perceived a favourable attitude and a high level of intention to practise solid waste segregation-atsource. The results also revealed that the descriptive norm and the injunctive norm have a positive relationship with the intention to practise solid waste segregation-at-source. The research concludes with policy implications as well as recommendations for future directions of research. 

Attitude, Descriptive norm, Injunctive norm, Intention, Solid waste segregation-at-source

Determinants of Self-Protection Practices in Online Shopping Among the Students of Higher Education Institutions, Malaysia
Nurul Atikaf Daud, Afida Mastura Muhammad Arif, Elistina Abu Bakar, Syuhaily Osman, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 91-110 |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


To date, technology has revolutionised consumer shopping experience, whereas the high internet penetration rate recorded in Malaysia causes the local online shopping market landscape to grow rapidly in recent years. Despite the convenience offered by online shopping, it also brings a new emerging area for consumer complaints and complicated issues implicating consumer protection. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the self protection practices embraced when online shopping among the students of higher education institutions in Malaysia. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire distributed among 400 respondents, following which a statistical analysis was performed inclusive of Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression. The outcome revealed that self efficacy, media of consumer education, safety priority, and subjective norm pose a positive and significant relationship with self-protection practices, whereby safety priority was denoted as the most influential predictor for such practices. The findings of this study are highly useful for the government to educate consumers regarding self-protection practices that should be implemented when engaging in online shopping. They should firstly recognise the strategies required to protect themselves against falling victim to rogue online sellers and appreciate that the best form of protection is self-protection. 

Media of consumer education, Online shopping, Safety priority, Self-efficacy, Self-protection practices, Subjective norm

A Systematic Review of 10 Years of Empirical Studies on Organic Food Consumption among Malaysian Consumers
Nur Aqilah Amalina Jaafar, Norhasmah Sulaiman, Mohd Redzwan Sabran, Shamsul Azahari Zainal Badari, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 111-134   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Organic food in Malaysia remains niche despite the positive growth globally due to its positive attributes towards health, safety, and environmental aspects. Numerous researches have been conducted to understand the factors and barriers involved in the consumption of organic food among Malaysians. However, there are still inconclusive findings to understand the scenario as most of the studies were conducted in certain areas in Malaysia. This paper aims to gather and analyze existing literature on the antecedents of organic food consumption among Malaysian consumers. A systematic literature search was carried out using three established databases which resulted in 15 empirical studies in the review. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the findings were categorized into the main constructs of the theory. This review provides a comprehensive summary of 10 years’ worth of studies on push-pull factors driving organic food consumption among Malaysians and a proposed conceptual framework by extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This paper ends with several recommendations that could be useful for policymakers, researchers as well as consumers. 

Consumer, Organic food, Systematic literature review, Theory of planned behaviour, Trust

Factors Influencing Group Farmers’ Behaviour Towards Safe Pesticide Use in Malaysia
Nyak Nur Hamida Nyak Hashim, Roslina Mat Salleh, Syuhaily Osman, Zuroni Md. Jusoh, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 135- 147   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Pesticide is widely used by farmers to control agricultural pest. The purpose of this study was to measure factors influencing farmer’s safety behaviour in pesticide use. A total of 431 respondents from four states which are Perak, Pulau Pinang, Johor, and Kelantan were chosen through stratified random sampling. Multiple regression analysis found that attitude was the most influential factor for farmers’ behaviour with R square of 0.671. Farmers should have positive attitudes and obtain support from several parties to educate them to handle the pesticide wisely. This study provides several insights for policy makers to overcome the obstacle by providing farmers with technical guidance and designing long-term collaborative programmes that support, develop, and foster sense of control among farmers. 

Pesticide, Attitude, Subjective norms, Perceived behavioural control, Intention

Psychological Factors Contributing towards Financial Problem among Civil Service Sector Employees
Husniyah, A. R, Amirah Shazana, M., Mohamad Fazli, S., Mohd. Amim, O., Roziah, M. R, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Page 148-171   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Financial problems faced by employees can affect their performance and life satisfaction, as well as impact people surrounding them. This study aimed at identifying the potential contributors to financial problems among employees, whereby multi-stage random sampling was used to sample employees working in the civil service sector of Peninsular Malaysia. The results obtained from 470 employees in this cross-sectional study revealed that psychological factors such as self-worth, future orientation, locus of control, and materialism were more prevalent in contributing to their financial problems. In particular, self-worth and future orientation negatively contributed to financial problems, whereas locus of control and materialism were contrastingly revealed as posing positive influences on the aspect. Meanwhile, financial behaviours such as savings and investment were not contributing directly to financial problem in consideration of psychological factors, wherein these employees’ perception of financial adequacy could be attributed instead. Hence, an intervention programme for employees focusing on these psychological factors can be developed by vigilant employers in enhancing their performance. Here, successfully overcoming employee’s financial problems may further benefit both parties, thereby leading to explosive economic growth. 

Financial adequacy, Financial problem, Locus of control, Materialism, Self-worth

The Mediating Role of Purchase Intention towards the Actual Purchase Behaviour of Halal Bakery Product among Consumers in Petaling district, Selangor
Nurzulain Zulkfli, Zuraini Mat Issa, Norhidayah Abdullah, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 172-1
86   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The addition of individual ingredients in bakery products is to provide certain functions which may affect the characteristics of the end products. However, the halal status of the ingredients used in bakery products has been an issue among Muslims consumers that can influence their purchasing decision. Therefore, this study aims to examine the mediating effect of purchase intention towards the relationship between the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) attributes and the actual purchase behaviour. A validated questionnaire was distributed to 476 consumers representing 95.2 per cent of response rate in Petaling district, Selangor using a purposive sampling method. The gathered data were screened for completion and those that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The SPSS version 24 and PLS-SEM were then used to analyse the data. The findings revealed that the subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the TPB attributes were shown to influence purchase intention and actual purchase behaviour significantly. This study also confirms that purchase intention mediates the relationship between TPB attributes and actual purchase behaviour. The findings supported previous studies that before conducting any actual purchases, the consumers’ intention to purchase the products would lead the process. The outputs of this empirical study provide evidence that competition in the halal bakery market exists together with consumer demands for the halal bakery products. Hence, the manufacturers can develop effective strategies in emphasizing all the TPB attributes to increase purchase intention, which would finally influence the actual purchase behaviour. 

Actual purchase behaviour, Bakery products, Halal, Purchase intention, Theory of Planned Behaviour

Unlocking the Point of Interest in Muslimah Fashion Advertisement: Evidence from Gaze Plot and Time to First Fixation Eye Tracker Analysis
Rosidah Musa, Janiffa Saidon, Noreldzaihan Mohd Rais, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 187- 200
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Today, social media networks have emerged as the primary source of inspiration and influence on the consumer purchase decision. Due to the ever-changing consumer media consumption behaviour, most brand owners would allocate a considerable amount of resources to create impactful content for their advertisement. However, there is little research that empirically investigates elements of advertisement content that evoke the initial attention and interest of the target audience. Against this backdrop, this study was motivated to investigate the element in advertisement content that would evoke the audience’s initial attention within the first 10 seconds of exposure to the stimulus. Consequently, this study aimed to unlock the specific element in the advertisement content as the point of interest (i.e. main focus) among experimental subjects in the experiment. The stimuli of this research consisted of four leading Muslimah fashion brand advertisements, which were posted on social media platforms. The experiment commenced by using an eye tracker device to track the subject’s eye movement patterns when exposed to the advertisement. This was followed by performing a postexperiment interview. Two types of analysis generated from the eye tracker experiment were then employed to address the research objectives, namely Gaze Plot and Time to First Fixation. The eye-tracker findings were validated against the post-experiment interview results. Surprisingly, the research findings implied that at the first one second, most of the subjects looked at the model face, which contradicted the outcomes derived from the postexperiment interview and prior findings. The implications and limitations of this research and future research directions are duly discussed in detail. 

Eye tracker, Advertisement content, Social media advertisement, Purchase intention, Digital marketing