Vol 24 (S2), 2018

Regular Articles

Cover Page Vol 24 (S2)
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Nanotechnology in the Food Processing and Packaging: An Overview of Its Halalan Tayyiban Aspect
Aishah Bujang, Fadilah Abd Rahman, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Sharifah Rohaiza Syed Omar, NGO Friends till Jannah Shah Alam

Page 1-14   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


In this day and age, whether it is by choice or force, technology has dominated the food industry. Nanotechnology has already made its mark in food processing, entering the food chain as food ingredients as well as in food packaging. Various nanomaterials such as nanopolymers, nanocomposites, nanoemulsions and nanocarriers are involved at different levels in the food industry and have both positive and negative implications towards human health. Does the usage of nanotechnology affect the consumption of food by the Muslims? Halal and toyyib, these two words are commanded by Allah SWT in Surah Al-Baqarah (verse 168), as reference to the choice of food we should consume. Halalan-tayyiban is more than just compliance to the fundamentals of Syariah. It includes the requirement of the food to be good, pure and wholesome. The aim of this paper is to review the various nanotechnology applications in the food industry and relate it to the requirements of food that can be considered as halal and tayyib. As Malaysia is already seen as the benchmark of halal certification and in the direction of becoming the global halal hub, it is hoped that the information from this paper will provide insights as to guide the Islamic authorities and manufacturers in making good judgments on the use of nanotechnology in food products for the betterment of the ummah. 

Halalan-Toyyiban, Food safety, Health risk, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Toxicity

Halal Rabbit Slaughtering Process for Muslim Consumption: A Case Study
Amal Hayati Ishak, Rafeah Saidon, Zulaipa Ruzulan, Sharifah Fadylawaty Syed Abdullah, Nurzahidah Jaapar, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Aisyaturridha Abdullah,
Malaysian Rabbit Breeders Association
Page 15-31   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The segment of Muslim consumption has become a worldwide effort as it opens up vast economic opportunities. For instance, due to the rapid growth of Muslim population and the increasing awareness towards quality and hygienic meat, the demand of halal meat is also gradually booming around the globe. At present, comprehensive procedures of halal meat have been endorsed by various halal certification bodies for poultry and livestock animals. Nevertheless, similar procedure for rabbits has been limitedly discussed despite the fact of its increasing demand in the market, for both Muslims and non-Muslim consumers as well. Therefore, this research study filled the gap by elaborating on the step-by-step procedure for a halal rabbit slaughtering process, applicable for a halal slaughterhouse which targets the Muslim consumers. Employing a case study analysis via participant observation, this article reports the proper and systematic practice of a halal rabbit slaughtering process. Finally, this article proposes three Halal Critical Points (HCPs) for rabbit slaughterhouses. 

Halal Assurance System (HAS), Halal Critical Control Points (HCCP), Rabbit slaughtering, Rabbit meat, Slaughterhouse

Regulating Good Agriculture Practices (GAPs) in Enhancing Sustainability of Halal Food: Malaysian Experience
Siti Sarah Sulaiman, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 32-45   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Agriculture has been defined as the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life or in more specific for human consumption. Therefore, this study attempts to prove that sustainability of halal food is also depending on the continuation of its natural resources which is agriculture farm products including fruits, vegetables and animals. Thus, a regulatory framework is needed to enforce and regulate good agricultural practice in ensuring sustainability of halal food. One of the standards adopted by Malaysian farmers is the Good Agriculture Practices (GAPs). The finding reveals that GAPs is not compulsory on all farmers despite its efficiency in ensuring food quality, food safety and protection of environment. Therefore, it should be reiterated that this study proposes for a regulatory framework to enforce GAPs on all farmers. In achieving the objective of this study, content analysis of legal data, the GAPs and interview with officers from the Ministry of Agriculture and Basic Industry was conducted. 

GAPs, Halal food, Law, Sustainability

Exploratory Factor Analysis in Determining Consumer Awareness Toward Halal Cosmetics
Zuraidah Derasit, S.Sarifah Radiah Shariff, Nurul Aliyah A.Hamid, Nursyafira Sarwani, Wan Nabilah Syahirah Shaharuddin, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 46-59   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Halal cosmetic industries have a remarkable capability of driving the Halal economy. Halal products are better for health—based on fact that in view of the Halal requirements, the food industry must handle animals in accordance with Shariah principles which are hygienic and purified. In Malaysia, manufacturers and operators use the Halal logo as a way to inform consumers that their products are Halal compliant. Halal is not only about a brand element, but also part of a belief system and moral code of conduct in our daily living. However, there is no assurance that the customers are fully aware of on the existence of Halal cosmetic products, especially among the younger population. Hence, there is a need to determine the factors that affect the level of awareness among them. This study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in determining the possible factors and then the Cronbach’s alpha values were measured to check the reliability for each of the factors. Based on the results of Cronbach’s alpha values, four factors were identified to be influence the level of awareness of young consumers and Malaysians on Halal cosmetics, namely Halal certification (0.782), promotion (0.671), level of belief (0.646) and religiosity (0.615). 

Cosmetic product, Consumer awareness, Halal, Religious

Mediating Effects of Attitude towards Willingness to Pay for Halal Transportation
Abdul Hafaz Ngah, Rudiah Md Hanafiah, Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib, Mohd Hafiz Zulfakar, Nabihah Mohamad Asri, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Mohamed Syazwan Ab Talib, Universiti Brunei Darussalam
Mohd Hafiz Zulfakar, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Page 60-74   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Halal is not restrained to the ingredients and manufacturing operation, but also should be in the supply chain activities, particularly in the transportation activities. Since becoming Halal transportation service providers, the transportation companies involved to adopt specific requirements that will lead to increase their operational cost, and the price will be interchanged to the clients. Literatures claimed that the consumers are looking for the Halal products, hence it is crucial to determine the factors of their willingness to pay (WTP) for the Halal transportation cost. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with religiosity factor was applied to determine those factors, and at the same time attitude will be tested as mediator in the research model. Non-probability sampling method with convenience sampling was used to collect the data from the respondent in the east coast of Malaysia. The findings reveal that all variables representing TPB and have a positive relationship with the willing to pay for the Halal transportation cost. An attitude also has a mediating effect of the relationship between religiosity and subjective norms towards the willingness to pay for the Halal transportation cost. Meanwhile, religiosity was not a significant factor towards the willingness to pay for the Halal transportation cost. The findings of the study will provide a better understanding of Muslim consumer behavior regards to the context of the study. Beside enriches the literature on Halal consumer behavior, it is anticipated that this field will contribute to other studies on Halal transportation. 

Halal transportation, Mediation, Theory of Planned Behavior, Willingness to pay

Visualizing Research Literature in Halal Supply Chain: A Bibliometric Analysis
Wan Marhaini Wan Omar, Mohd Nasir Ismail, Muslim Ismail@Ahmad, Ghazali Osman, Mohamad Safri Ya, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 75-92 |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The development of scientific research in the area of halal supply chain is relatively new but growing. It is of utmost necessity to identify the potential areas as well as the severity of this research. Thus, the aim of this study is to visualize the scientific research on halal supply chain by conducting bibliometric analysis. The analysis was performed by using the VOSviewer software and data analysis tool available in the Scopus base. A total of 104 publications in relation to halal supply chain were extracted from Scopus database ranging from 2008 to 2018. Co-citation analysis and co-word analysis were conducted to visualize the evolution of research themes in this particular field. The findings of this study may help researchers understand the nature of halal supply chain research from across the world and suggest future research directions. 

Halal supply chain, Bibliometric analysis, Co-citation analysis, Coword analysis

An Alternative on the Usage of Marine Mollusc Heparin as the Halal Anticoagulant Source among Muslim Consumers
Mohd Amzari Tumiran, Mohd Zaid Daud, Nur Farhani Zarmani, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 93-104   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Halal pharmaceuticals are on the rise as far-sighted businesses compete in the sector and obtain halal certification, particularly in Malaysia, South Korea and Indonesia. One of the most necessary issues to take into consideration is the development of anticoagulants in halal pharmaceuticals. Heparin serves as an anticoagulant and potential as an anticancer agent. Organs and tissues such as lungs, liver, ileum, skin, lymph, and thymus in certain mammals and vertebrates contain most of heparin. However, heparin usually derived from pig derivatives and provided through the chemical extraction from pig intestine, which are clearly not syariah-compliant. The objective of this review paper is to describe the potential of marine molluscs as an alternative source of halal heparin for its anticoagulant effects in the pharmaceutical sector. The heparin extracted from marine molluscs have a different blood-coagulating system compared to mammals. The potential of heparin extract of marine molluscs as a halal alternative source were refined and discussed, also expected to meet the requirements of halal pharmaceuticals for Muslim consumerism. 

Halal pharmaceuticals, Heparin, Marine molluscs, Anticoagulant, Muslim consumers

Examining the Competency Skills of Graduating Islamic Finance Students
Siti Khadijah, A. M., Rafeah, S., Amal Hayati Ishak, Noorulhuda, S., Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 105- 119   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Graduates from Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia were reported to remain unemployed after six-months of graduation. Nevertheless, the Islamic finance industry is reporting of shortage in human capital. This has raised the question on the competence of our graduates for employment purpose, particularly those who take Islamic finance programs. This study embarks on examining the competency levels of graduating Islamic finance students in a selected HEIs in Malaysia. As current studies indicated that soft skills are on top of technical skills, this present study focused on the former. The study employed survey method by distributing questionnaires to the respondents. A total of 135 questionnaires were successfully returned and useable for the study. Data were analysed descriptively to identify the level of competency that the graduating students have. Findings of the study indicate that the students are moderately competent in the key soft-skills examined. The outcome is giving a signal to the HEIs in reviewing and amending their program structure to accommodate the grooming of their students for employment. 

Competence, Graduating students, Islamic finance, Soft-skills

Efficiency Performance of SMEs Firms: A Case study of Islamic Financing Guarantee Scheme of Credit Guarantee Corporation
Husniyati Ali, Ismail Ahmad, Badrul Hisham Kamaruddin, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 120-134   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The objective of this paper is to evaluate performance efficiency of the Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of different economic industries that patronize the Islamic financing guarantee scheme of Direct Access Guarantee Schemei (DAGS-i). This scheme was offered by the Credit Guarantee Corporation (CGC). In essence, both Muslim and non-Muslim entrepreneurs have recognised the trend towards Islamic banking and finance and have since used Shari’ah compliant financing and services for their firm needs. Moreover, the spirit towards ethical products and services by Islamic financial institutions has motivated entrepreneurial firms to seek patronage. Against this background, this study attempts to evaluate 42 firms from three industries, namely Services; Engineering and Construction; and Logistics and Transportation, to assess their performance on the aspect of production efficiency over a period of 2006-2014. A total of 378 observations, which involves firms that patronize the Islamic financing guarantee scheme of Direct Access Guarantee Scheme-i (DAGS-i). This study employed the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique to assess the performance of firms. The results indicate that there are firms that able to achieve efficiency scores of 1. In this regard, the efficient firms will be a benchmark to the other firms to achieve efficiency in terms of using the available resources of inputs. Better coordination and supervision from Corporation will enables the other firms to perform well. 

Credit guarantee corporation, Data envelopment analysis efficiency, Entrepreneur, Islamic financing guarantee scheme

Islamic Venture Capital in Malaysia: Operation and Challenges
Sharifah Faigah Syed Alwi, Mohamad Nizam Jaafar, Ismah Osman, Amirul Afif Muhamat, Ruhaini Muda, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Abdul Hadi Md Akhir, Hong Leong Bank Berhad
Page 135-1
55   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Operational practices of Islamic venture capital and conventional venture capital in Malaysia differ from one another, specifically with regards to their investment activities where the investment of Islamic venture capital is restricted to Shariah compliant funds and businesses only. As at 2018, there are 64 Venture Capital Management Corporations (VCMC) registered in Malaysia. Unfortunately, in Malaysia, there are still very few of Islamic Venture Capital Management Corporations (IVCMC) that are established. Globally, Islamic venture capital seems to be quite relatively new as compared to conventional venture capital. Accordingly, this study aims to highlight the real concept and operation of Islamic venture capital in Malaysia. This research also intends to identify the challenges faced by the IVCMC for survival among the conventional VCMC in Malaysia. In addition, this study adopted qualitative method where the evidence on the real concept, operation and challenges of Islamic venture capital companies are gathered from the practice of the only two of IVCMCs in Malaysia which are willing to participate in this research. Apparently, it is found that Islamic venture capital can be considered as a participatory finance-based paradigm, established on profit-sharing principles namely in mudarabah (profit sharing) and musyarakah (profit and loss sharing) contracts, to ensure a justly inclusive economic growth. However, the main challenge for its growth is a lack of awareness among entrepreneurs with regards to the existence and function of IVCMC in providing investment and financial services. More importantly, the Malaysian government or private sector need to increase the funding of IVCMC to expand the growth so that Malaysia can emerge to be as one of the centers of excellence for Islamic venture capital. 

Islamic venture capital, Operation, Challenges

Decision Model and Simulation for Autonomous Lenient Bidding in Shariah-based E-Auction
Norleyza Jailani, Muriati Mukhtar, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Mohammed Al-aaidroos, Seiyoun Community College
Page 156- 174
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Auction outcomes can be more efficient when bidders’ preferences are altruistic rather than selfish specifically for sustainable model which go beyond self-interest. This paper introduces a novel altruistic model inspired by the concept of Islamic leniency to promote benevolent acts between auction participants through a bidding strategy that relies on Falah decision model that reflects Islamic leniency values. In this model, the altruistic utility is used to simulate empathy and replace the egoistic behaviour, while lexicographic preference introduces the levels of satiations where the agent stops maximizing his utility. Software agents implemented using the Jade platform are utilized to represent bidders’ and sellers’ behaviours. We conducted simulations to demonstrate i) selfish bidders behaviour, ii) altruism behaviour towards selfish seller in dire need (daruriyat) and iii) altruism towards other bidder who is the current winner. In all selfish bidders simulation, competition increased with number of bidders. In simulation ii) winning prices are higher compared to all selfish bidders since bidders feel emphaty towards seller. Findings from the simulation iii) shows that as altruistic perception increased, auction becomes more efficient since the number of bids submitted decreased which means less competition between bidders even though the other bidders behave selfishly. The simulations on the proposed Falah-based bidding strategy proves its worthiness to soften auction competition and promote Islamic values compared to the conventional utilitarian decision model. 

Altruism, Bidding strategy, Lexicographic preference, Sharia compliant, Software agent

Religious Psycho-Spiritual Care Services for Disaster Victims
Rafeah Saidon, Siti Khadijah Ab Manan, Rosilawati Sueb, Noorul Huda Sahari, Asmak Husin, Nurul Sakinah Aziz, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Fairuz Nazri Abd Rahman, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Page 175-187   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Natural disasters have severe psycho-spiritual impacts. While the emotional injuries might not be as obvious as the damage to properties, it usually requires a much longer time to recover compared to material losses. Prompt and sufficient psycho-spiritual support care is able to avoid more serious distress and anguish. It also helps the sufferers in dealing with their issues while adapting to their daily lives. Sufferers tend to deal with traumatic or stressful situations according to their religious faith. Unfortunately, a review of the literature indicates that psycho-spiritual care services are still lacking particularly in the context of Islamic religious perspectives. Therefore, this paper studied the existing practice of Islamic psycho-spiritual care services in Malaysia, and the possible areas of improvements in the existing practice primarily via a qualitative method using semi-structured interview. Literature on related studies such as documents, manuals, journal articles and books were also extensively reviewed. Findings show that from the existing practice, there is no such comprehensive psycho spiritual care services system as they provide only the general stages of action to be carried out for psychologically supporting the disaster victims. Good psycho-spiritual care service models are still lacking, particularly in the context of the Islamic perspective. 

Natural disasters, Psycho-spiritual care, Services, Islamic perspective

Does small scale sustainable urban agriculture (SUA) alleviate the economic burdens of low- and middle-income households?
N.N.M. Shariff, Z.S. Hamidi, M.R. Osman, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 188-201   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The aim of this paper is to investigate available evidence concerning how sustainable urban agriculture (SUA) may alleviate the economic burdens of low- and middle-income households. Issues of food security and nutrition have wide reaching implications for people and their environments, particularly in low and middle-income countries. One proposed solution is urban agriculture, which has been widely upheld as a solution to the foodcrisis facing increasingly metropolitan populations. Data were collected in an urban area of Selangor, Shah Alam, with semi-structured interviews, observations and questionnaires. By adopting SUA, they can save around RM50-RM200 per month on kitchen provisions. This is due to farmgate price often being cheaper than market price. There are two (2) interconnected factors identified that contribute in alleviating economic burden in low- and middle-income household: 1) adopting sustainable agriculture practices; and 2) systematic operation of farming program by multiple players. In future, small scale sustainable urban agriculture can be used as coping strategy by local authorities to secure a food supply and serve as a step towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 

Economic burden, Food security, Household income, Sustainable urban agriculture

Towards Good Governance: Values Internalization and Organizational Performance
Nor Hafizah Ibrahim, Anitawati Mohd Lokman, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Tee Keng Kok, Xiamen University Malaysia

Page 202-215   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The Malaysian Government introduced various quality-oriented initiatives to improve the quality of service delivery among public agencies. Nevertheless, the reported number of complaints related to public service has been alarming. Subsequently, the concept of good governance was introduced to the public sector with the ultimate aim of improving the implementation of quality initiatives in order to to enhance public service performance. This preliminary study intends to explore the outcome of values induction programs carried out to strengthen the practice of good governance among public agencies. Additionally, this study investigates the contribution of good governance on the implementation of MS ISO 9001 and service delivery performance of the respective public agencies in Malaysia. A qualitative method involving the use of primary and secondary data is implemented. Moreover, a conceptual framework is developed based on previous literature and theories, which guides the process of formulating research questions and objectives. The study finds that the values inculcation programs contribute to moderate internalization of values within the public service. The obligation to achieve the stipulated Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is a major factor influencing the behavior of employees as opposed to values because the KPI is one of the requirements for performance evaluation and career development. The study indicates the role of good governance practices in uplifting the effectiveness of MS ISO 9001 implementation, favorably impacting the level of organization performance. This could benefit organizations and other stakeholders embarking on improving work practices through the internalization of ethics and values in pursuit of good governance. 

Good governance, MS ISO 9001, Performance, Public agency, Values