Vol 24 (S1), 2020

Regular Articles

Cover Page Vol 24 (S1)
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Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) and User-Generated Content (UGC) on Beauty Products on YouTube: Factors Affecting Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intention
Mazzini Muda, Noor Rita Mohamed Khan, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 1-22   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The development of Web 2.0, social media and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) has given consumers a rich repertoire of product information to assist their purchase decisions. Many previous studies on eWOM concluded that consumers prefer user-generated contents (UGC) compared to company-generated contents (CGC). However, little is presently known about the relevant factors driving the UGC usage in the context of beauty products’ video reviews, specifically on YouTube. The current study examines the influence of information quality (IQ), perceived usefulness (PU), perceived credibility (PC) and perceptual homophily (PH) on consumer attitudes toward UGC and their intention of using it in their purchase decisions. Data collection was designed using a purposive sampling method, and the dataset of 372 respondents was subsequently analysed with PLS-SEM technique. The results revealed that all factors have a positive effect on consumer attitudes toward product contents which other users generate on YouTube. However, only PC has a positive impact on purchase intention. This study’s results have important implications for companies keen to develop a marketing strategy to promote their products on user-generated video website such as YouTube. 

User-Generated Contents (UGC), Perceived credibility, Perceptual homophily, Purchase intention, YouTube

Factorial Structure and Psychometric Evaluation of Islamic Retail Experiential Value Scale and Total Islamic Experience Quality
Rosidah Musa, Syaharizah Abdul Aziz, Janiffa Saidon, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 23-38   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Purpose: This study attempts to examine the psychometric properties and the underlying factorial structure of the Islamic Retail Experiential Value (IREV) and Total Islamic Experience Quality(TIEQ) measurement scales in the context of a restaurant setting. Methodology: Self-administered convenience sampling method was used through 181 samples (n=181) of Muslim Urban Millennials(MUM) patrons of the Indian Muslim restaurant in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Data were analysed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Implications: The findings unveiled IREV as a multidimensional scale consists of four quadrants of experiential value, namely, Social, Islamic, Service Excellence and Playfulness. The empirical data fit our first-order model indicating a high level of reliability, convergent and discriminant validity. The second-order model also shows an acceptable model fit. To test the nomological validity, a structural model was developed to examine the relationship on Total Islamic Experience Quality (TIEQ). The result enriches the existing literature on Muslim customer behaviour and provides practical implications for restauranteurs. The originality: This study is the first to validate and refine the Islamic value dimension and spiritual emotion in the restaurant setting. This study serves as a modification to the conventional typology of Experiential Value Scale (EVS) and Mehrabian & Russell (1974) emotional states theory.  

Experiential value, Islamic value, Muslim millennial, Spiritual emotions, Total experience

Hypothesising the Effect of Social Media Influencer Roles, Credibility and Advertising Values on Attitude and Brand Love
Nor Azri Sharizal Abu Bakar, Rosidah Musa, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 39-51   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


As social media plays a vital role in mass communication, more effective advertising strategies are now being developed through it. Influencer marketing in social media is another new strategic area yet to be explored by researchers. Despite its emergence as a popular platform for creating brand awareness, however, very little research delves into this research area. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a conceptual framework that hypothesises the effect of social media influencer and advertising value on attitude and brand love, specifically in the context of Malaysia’s national car. This paper highlighted the importance of the roles and credibility of social media influencer as ‘user specific effect’ which are predicted to influence consumer attitude. In addition, the social media advertising values, which refer as ‘content effect’ also play essential roles in shaping the consumer attitude. Both effects are measured for their relationship with a consumer attitude towards social media video and as well as consumer attitude towards the selected brands, which at the end affecting brand love. The study will specifically refer to Malaysia’s pioneer national automotive brand, namely ‘PROTON’ social media advertisement. The result of the study is also expected to expand the scope of social media influencer and consumer attitude on social media content to enhance the marketing strategy for consumer brands. 

Social media influencer, Advertising value, Consumer attitude, Brand love, Automotive brand

The Mediating Effect of Customer Satisfaction on the Relationship between Marketing Mix and Customer Loyalty in Mobile Phone Services Industry
Mohd. Khirzan Badzli A. Rahman, Siti Asiah Md Shahid, Rozita Naina Mohamed, Nur Najjah Abd Rahim, Felina Felise Fuza Hamdan, Azuati Binti Mahmud, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 52-69   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study attempts to identify the impact of marketing mix on customer loyalty mediates by customer satisfaction in the mobile phone services industry. An explanatory study was employed to examine the relationships between the variables. The quantitative research method was used, and data were collected from 384 distributed questionnaires to targeted respondents. Pearson Coefficient Correlation, factor analysis, descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, and regression analysis were utilized to determine the relationships of the variables, and the data were analyzed using a computer software package – Statistical Package for Social Science (21.0). The findings showed that all the marketing mix elements namely product, price, place and promotion have a significant relationship towards customer satisfaction. While findings for the relationship between marketing mix and customer loyalty mediates by customer satisfaction showed that only place and promotion have a significant relationship while product and price were not significant. The study provides mobile phone company managers to come out with a proper guideline on how to utilize the potential use of marketing activities in return for loyalty from the customer. As a matter of interest, this paper describes the effective usage of customer options in buying behavior and survey method for marketing managers to prepare for a better marketing trend in the future. 

Malaysia telecommunication industry, Marketing mix, Customer satisfaction, Customer loyalty

Residents and Community Interpretation of, and Participation in Socio-cultural Awareness Activities of Tourism Environmental Conservation in Langkawi
Muhammad Azizan, Universiti Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah
Azila Azmi, Nor Asmalina Mohd Anuar, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 70-88   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Langkawi is predominantly made up of Malays who are Muslims. However, there is a small percentage of Buddhists, Hindus, and Christians on the island. In Malaysia, Islam is constitutionally the official religion, with the freedom to practice other religions enshrined. It has played an important cultural role and influence the way Malaysians think. The main principle of any religion is to maintain harmony in peoples’ minds and between people in society. Consequently, avoidance of conflict through social confrontation becomes a significant value. Social Exchange Theory is supported by much research evidence suggesting the usefulness of the exchange system for the evaluation of tourism impacts. But no researcher has taken the cultural background of host residents into account when discussing awareness of tourism environmental conservation efforts. Langkawi is a tropical rainforest island, a Geopark, becoming an international tourism island that still maintains a laid-back island lifestyle; an openhearted multicultural community in the northwestern of Malaysia; was set as a case study of this research. A constructivist paradigm with a semi-structured interview method was adopted. This research explores an overview of Malaysian culture which is necessary to interpret the residents and community social construct of the socio-cultural awareness of tourism in environmental conservation and allows the focus to move away from a purely tourism-centric sociocultural interpretation, leading to a better understanding of residents and community responses to the awareness of tourism environmental conservation efforts in the context of Malaysia. 

Residents and community, Socio-cultural awareness, Social Exchange Theory, Tourism environmental conservation, Langkawi

Are Malaysian Organizations Ready to Be Digitalize? Lesson Learned on Digital Resources Implementation
Roozita Maskun, Rosidah Musa, Janiffa Saidon, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 89-103 |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Digital resources have been a central objective in every organization nowadays. The organizational performance is, by some means, is measure by the success in implementing and managing their digital resources. Are the digital resources ready to be browsed by the employee? Do the digital resources fully utilize by the employees in the organization? Are the content updated? The answer somehow is not the answer we expect to hear. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to explore the realization in implementation and current practices of digital resources among the well established company in Malaysian organizations. Design / methodology / approach: An inductive approach used to understand and analyze the implementation and practices among the employees within the organizations. Depth-interviews with human resource managers and operations managers in round-table talk are the primary sources for this paper. Data collected were analyzed using thematic categorization. Results presented were using the descriptive and narrative form. Secondary data, such as reporting and documentation during the discussion, were taken into consideration. Findings: This paper has identified the issues/challenges faced, such as insufficient support from various sources. The digital experts, digital infrastructure, digital culture and digital process and procedure, are the primary concern in realizing the digital resources in Malaysia organizations. Managerial implications: Management may benefit from foreseeing the vital aspect and factors before and when implementing digital resources. Lesson learnt the organization should focus on how this digital resources may help the employees and dealing with well-curated content for the shared platform on all the sources. Originality/value – This paper is an attempt to reveal “behind the scene” on actual implementation on digital resources in Malaysia organization. 

Digitalization success factor, Technology-related, Lesson learned, Knowledge sharing, Digital resources

The Relationship Between University Entrepreneurial Agenda and Student’s Intention to Be an Entrepreneur: Moderating Student’s Commitment
Muhammad Izwan Mohd Badrillah, Nor Hidayah Muhamad Yusuf, Nor Farizan Tarudin, Tengku Nurul Aishah Tengku Aziz, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Rudzi Munap, UNITAR International University
Page 104-122   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


University entrepreneurial agenda is imperative to determine the student’s intention to be an entrepreneur. In this study, university entrepreneurial agenda refers to culture, leadership, and strategy of the university’s effort in influencing the student’s to be an entrepreneur. The intention is defined as the state of mind directing a person’s attention and action towards selfemployment as opposed to organizational employment intention. This study aims to examine the relationship between university entrepreneurial agenda with student’s intention to be an entrepreneur among students from various faculty’s in UITM Puncak Alam. A total of 250 questionnaires adapted from Veciena et. al. (2005) and Venesaar et. al. (2006) were modified, distributed, and received a 100 percent response rate. The result was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, correlation, and hierarchical regression analysis. The findings revealed that university entrepreneurial agenda has a significant positive relationship with student’s intention to be an entrepreneur (Culture: p<0.01, r=.455, Leadership: p<0.01, r=.259, Strategy: p<0.01, r=.249). However, a student’s commitment to culture (p=.373), leadership (p=.300), strategy (p=.660) does not moderate the relationship between university entrepreneurial agenda and student’s intention to be an entrepreneur. In conclusion, the recommendations and suggestions for future research were made on the findings of this study. 

University entrepreneurial agenda, Student’s commitment, Student’s intention

Alternative-based Funding Model and Resource Dependency Theory: Perspectives of Malaysian Non-Government Organisations
Azzarina Zakaria, Nurliana Zahira Zaharrudin, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 123- 136   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Many Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) are primarily dependent on grants and donations; they faced the constant threat of their money resources drying up. To sustain the ability to do good for the long term, the NGOs must challenge themselves to be self-sustainable. They need to redefine their funding streams and blaze forward with ingenuity and business acumen to maximise funding opportunities. This study offers an alternative-based funding model that emphasises internal embeddedness that would reduce the NGOs’ dependence on traditional funding. The model entails diversifying income streams that would encourage independence to explore more routes to self-sustainability. This study is essentially qualitative and will be adopting interpretivism as its philosophical stance as it is believed to suit the unpredictability nature of NGO’s environment. Semistructured interviews will be planned with the selected organizational leader of NGOs registered with Registrar of Society following the purposive sampling procedures. The interview data will be subjected to a thematic analysis. This study will advance the Resource Dependency Theory (RDT) through the development of alternative-based funding model in response to resource dependence principles of RDT. The model would drive NGOs to perpetuate and championing social well-being and most important supporting the mandate of national sustainable development goals. 

Alternative-based Funding Model, Resource Dependency Theory, Sustainability, Non-Government Organisations, Malaysia

Elements Influencing Students’ Selection of International Universities for Higher Studies on Scale of Hedonic and Utilitarian Value
M. Awais Mehmood, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University
Faisal Aftab, Hamza Javaid, Hoda Mahmoud AboAlsamh, Ibrahim Tawfeeq Alsedrah, Bahria University
Page 137-152   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Purpose: Pakistan has been one of the prime destinations for the recruitment of students by foreign universities. Over 50,000 students from Pakistan join foreign HEIs (Higher Educational Institutes) every year. Design/methodology/approach: This research has tried to understand the student selection criteria, based on consumer behavior theory of hedonic and utilitarian value. The in-depth interview with the education consultants in Pakistan has identified several internal and external elements related to the foreign HEIs, which students seriously consider before making the selection. The authors further classified these elements on their utilitarian and hedonic scale through focused groups specifying the functional and/or symbolic perception of these elements. Findings: The study reveals that foreign student fees, ease of admission, countries’ immigration rules settlements after studies in shapes of jobs and permanent citizen status, and word of mouth were the key considerations to make the admission decisions. Originality/value: There is a dearth of research that gives an insight into the selection process through which Pakistani students’ select foreign universities. The study provides value to universities and government policymakers for promoting their own country’s HEIs to international students. There is a dearth of research in the selection process through which students select foreign universities. 

Consumer, Behavior, Admissions, Hedonic, Utilitarian

Organisational Justice and Its Implications on Non-Academic Staff Intention to Stay: Evidence from Private Higher Learning Institutions in Malaysia
Siti Asiah Md Shahid, Abdul Kadir Othman, Syahrina Hayati Md Jani, Mohd Khirzan Badzli A Rahman, Rozita Naina Mohamed, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Shariff Harun, Universiti Kuala Lumpur

Page 153-1
68   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Purpose – In general, this study aims to examine the relationship between organisational justice and the intention to stay of non-academic staff within the context of Malaysian Private Higher Learning Institutions (PHLIs). Design/methodology/approach – This study utilises descriptive research design and data for this study were gathered through survey questionnaires comprised of 272 non-academic staff within the Management and Professional grade (equivalent to grade 41 to 54 of the Malaysian public service) from selected Malaysian PHLIs. Findings – Results revealed that the PHLIs were generally practising moderate level of organisational justice and the non-academic staff moderately agree with their intention to stay in the organisation. Practical implications – Efforts to increase the nonacademic staff intention to stay should focus on enhancing the employees’ fairness perceptions pertaining to the university’s management practices, work distributions and reward allocations processes. Originality/value – Studies that investigated the influence of organisational justice in promoting the Malaysian employees’ intention to stay are quite limited, this has created a gap in the literature. As such, management understanding on the effects of organisational justice towards the non-academic staff can foster positive work environment that can encourage competent non-academic staff to remain with the university. 

Organisational justice, Behavioural intentions, Private higher learning institutions, Non-academic staff, Intention to stay

A Rudimentary Study on The Intangible Resources’ Roles in Inducing Micro Multinationals En Route For Internationalization Success
Shamsul Baharin Saihani, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 169- 195
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An embryonic number of micro multinationals successfully internationalizing their businesses captured numerous researchers and managers by surprise. Undeniably, these micro multinationals, a small, self-starting company that is born global and leveraging the technology of the Internet successfully internationalize creating a new evolution to the international business landscapes. The pre-tests and pilot study look into the preliminary roles of value creation and reputation and the moderating role of environmental dynamism in inducing the internationalization success of the micro multinationals from the online business owner’s start-ups or the managers’ perspectives. Using resource-based view (RBV) theory and international performance model i.e. export performance, a framework was deduced. The study draws on a study of exploratory nature using a quantitative method. Non-probability sampling using a convenience method was used. The sample for the pilot study was derived from 33 online business community members, but 3 were excluded due to limited experience and knowledge relevant to the study. This study used Partial Least Square-Structured Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis. The findings indicate that except for one item in the environmental dynamism construct, all other items in the construct of value creation, reputation, and environmental dynamism demonstrate internal consistency, indicator reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Therefore, the pilot test indicates that there is no issue of validity and reliability of the instrument. 

Value creation, Reputation, Environmental dynamism, Resource Based View (RBV), Export performance

Innovation in Business with Social Cohesion and Interpersonal Trust
Wan Edura Wan Rashid, Norfadzilah Abd Razak, Saunah Zainon, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 196-207   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Inspiring to transform innovation into wealth offers a broad range of advantages, including research and development (R&D) coordination, investment, exploiting synergies, complementing science and technological capacities, and enhancing labour mobility. However, the practice of innovation is most challenging for the organization. Innovation could not work individually, but they need support from the entire of the organization and systems. Lack of collaboration and cooperation have detrimental the effectiveness of innovation. It implies the social cohesion, interpersonal trust and feeling of uncertainty to the risk of the innovation. Therefore, the element of social cohesion and interpersonal trust predict to improve and strengthen the collaboration and cooperation in the organization. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the fundamental of social cohesion and the significance of social cohesion and interpersonal trust 50 companies that presented by the employees. The survey conducted to 150 of employees, and the data collection further been analyzed using Partial Least Square (PLS). The finding revealed there was a positive and significant relationship between social cohesion and interpersonal trust. This study implies to the organization to minimize the gap of social cohesion and enhance the interpersonal trust that will result in meaningful collaboration. 

Social cohesion, Interpersonal trust, Organizational behavior

The Moderating Roles of Organizational Commitment on the Relationship between Quality of Work Life and Turnover Intention among Call Center Employees
Narehan Hassan, Nur Munirah Wan Mazlan, Mazuin Mat Halif, Shereen Noranee, Noor Zalina Zaina, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 208-228   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


In recent years, employees’ turnover is a major concern for many organizations especially those that provide call centers. This is due to the fact that turnover among employees will resemble that something is not right about that organization and may cause the reputation of that company. In addition, it will incur both direct and indirect costs to hire new employees. Turnover is eminent among all center employees because of the stressful working conditions at the call centers. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of quality of work life (QWL) variables, which include general well-being, control at work, home-work interface, job career satisfaction, stress at work and working conditions towards employee turnover intention. It also sought to investigate the moderating roles of organizational commitment towards the relationship between QWL and turnover intention. The research was conducted among call center employees at two major companies which were Digi Telecommunications and Xerox Business Services Malaysia. The quantitative research method was used and data were collected using questionnaires. Respondents were selected using convenience sampling and data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, regression and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study revealed organizational commitment did not moderate the relationship between quality of work life and turnover intention among call center employees. However, all sub-variables of organizational commitment (affective, normative and continuance) did moderate one element in quality of life which was stress at work towards turnover intention. In addition, the researchers also found that only stress at work influenced employee turnover intention. It is recommended that employers to manage stress among employees at call centers by giving them better benefits to reduce turnover and to reward them with non-intrinsic compensation to keep them happy at the workplace. 

Quality of work life, Turnover intention, Organizational commitment, Call center employees, Stress at work

Social Support as Predictor Towards Occupational Stress Among Employees in Major Telecommunication Companies in Malaysia
Mazuin Mat Halif, Narehan Hassan, Mohd Taufiq Saini, Nur Athirah Sumardi, Shereen Noranee, Noor Zalina Zaina, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 229-246   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Occupational stress at the workplace is perceived as threatening issue to both employees and organizational performance. It has brought many negative outcomes as a result of today’s dynamic life style and has become a great concern to the management, employees, and other stakeholders of an organization. It is also perceived as a critical issue for employees in dealing with occupational stress. In case of telecommunication companies in Malaysia, occupational stress is a major constraint for the employees to maintain their productivity and performance. A survey was conducted among major telecommunication companies in Malaysia to investigate the social support elements which consisted of emotional, material and informational support as the predictors to occupational stress among employees. It was discovered that social support in general was related to employee’s occupational stress, with only two dimensions (material and informational support) that were found to be related to the dependent variable. This has excluded emotional support dimension as a non-predictor towards occupational stress. Besides, a multiple regression analysis was also conducted and the result revealed that material support was the only dimension of social support that may influence the employees’ occupational stress. Nevertheless, the result has revealed to be parallel to previous researches, supporting that social support was needed in alleviating occupational stress. In future, this study has proposed the importance of investigating other different dimensions of occupational stress such as appraisal support, network support and esteem support. 

Workplace stress, Social support, Communication and emotional support

Hypothesised Model of Determinants and Consequences of Social Media Content Marketing Experience Quality (Smcmeq) in Muslimah Fashion Advertisement
Rosidah Musa, Nur Syakirah Ahmad, Janiffa Saidon, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 247-261   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The rapid development of technology every day has led to many changes in marketing strategies. Every business entity goes head to head with each other to win in this ocean of rivalries. However, only one marketing strategy that can make those business entities different from each other’s and it is content marketing. There are many practitioners in the business make emphasis on this topic, but lack of the scholars who discuss this matter, especially in content marketing quality. Thus, this paper aims to amplify the theoretical body of knowledge and provide a conceptual framework of content marketing quality and its consequences towards consumers experience, behavioural intention and affective loyalty. The context of this study is about social media users among Muslims, urban women Millennial. The model is supported by two famous theories in consumer behaviour known as Stimuli-Organism-Response (SOR) and Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance (PAD) theory. The researcher will add a new dimension into PAD theory known as Inner Peace. This study will apply the mix method in data collection. The paper concludes with a pragmatic understanding for both the researchers and business practitioners in effectively developing their promotional strategies through social media platforms. 

Content marketing, Social media marketing, Behavioural intention, Loyalty, Inner peace

Foreign Direct Investment Learning of the Productivity in Chinese Regional Economy
Yonghun Jung, Seong-Hoon Lee, Korea University Sejong Campus
Page 262-279   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This paper examines the effect of learning by FDI on TFP using Chinese provinces dataset. The study employs endogenous growth model that takes place in the various capital goods including foreign capital goods as vehicle for the technology transfer. The study derives TFP as a function of FDI stock, indicating that its contribution is through the channel of technological progress, rather than capital accumulation in the hosting country. The theoretical prediction is that FDI learning has a negative level effect in the short run on the TFP, but has a positive rate effect in the long run. These predictions are empirically confirmed using a fixed effects panel model. Empirical findings show that the FDI learning plays an important role in the process of technology diffusion, controlling for other factors that may affect TFP. The study also discusses a policy implication of the FDI on the Chinese regional economic growth. 

FDI, Productivity, Chinese regional economy