Vol 21, 2018

Regular Articles

Credence and Personal Factors as a Direct Cause of Brand Extension Evaluation: Does Perceived Fit Matter?
Najeeb Ullah Shah, Nik Mohd Hazrul Nik Hashim, Nor Asiah Omar, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Page 1-19   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study sets out to examine the effects of brand credence (i.e., brand credibility and country of origin), personal factors (i.e., consumer innovativeness and value consciousness) and perceived fit on consumers’ evaluation of brand extensions. Additionally, this study takes into consideration the moderating role of perceived fit. A personnel administered questionnaire was designed using established scales and the data was collected via mall intercepts. Confirmatory factor analysis is used for model validity and hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the proposed hypotheses, with a sample of 421 shoppers in Malaysia. The results show that country of origin, brand credibility, consumer innovativeness and perceived fit have a positive effect on brand extension evaluation, whereas perceived fit does not moderate the relationship between credence factors and brand extension evaluation. The empirical findings of this study hold important implications for practitioners. Specifically, marketers should focus on developing a positive country of origin image and brand credibility to increase the chance of brand extension success. Personality traits of the target market such as consumer innovativeness and consumers‘ perceived fit between the extended and the parent brand should also be considered as these will have a bearing on brand extension evaluation success. 

Country of origin, Brand credibility, Consumer innovativeness, Value consciousness, Perceived fit, Brand extension evaluation

Examining Consumers’ Continuance Intention and Brand Loyalty in Islamic Insurance (Takaful)
Norazah Mohd Suki, Norbayah Mohd Suki, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mohd Anas Mentoh, Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Page 20-37   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The goals of this research are threefold: (1) to examine intrinsic motives, extrinsic motives, and satisfaction impact upon consumers’ positive electronic-word-of-mouth (E-WOM) in respect of Islamic insurance (Takaful), (2) to investigate the influence of positive E-WOM and satisfaction on consumers’ continuance intention in respect of Takaful, and (3) to explain the effect of satisfaction and continuance intention on consumers’ brand loyalty in respect of Takaful. A quantitative approach was applied through a self-administered questionnaire to obtain data from 300 Takaful subscribers in the Generation Y group. They were pre-screened and identified through their online postings, having any Takaful policy, and being referred to by Takaful advisors and operators. Empirical results of the Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) approach discovered that intrinsic motives, extrinsic motives, and satisfaction affect consumers’ positive E-WOM regarding Takaful. Additionally, the effect of positive E-WOM on consumers’ continuance intention in Takaful is found to be significant. Satisfaction emerges as the strongest predictor of consumers’ continuance intention in Takaful. Further, the study reveals that satisfaction influences consumers’ brand loyalty in respect of Takaful. Approachable and pleasant Takaful frontline advisors/agents who can provide a prompt response to consumers, are vital in the process of increasing consumer satisfaction and boosting loyalty to their brand. Understanding positive E-WOM, consumers’ satisfaction, continuance intention, and brand loyalty in respect of Takaful permit Takaful operator to be more active and responsive in the online medium on a daily basis, and thereby be in a position to encourage more interaction and response among consumers with regards to their Takaful participation. This would prolong the positive relationship between the Takaful operators with their consumers. Directions for future research are suggested. 

Brand loyalty, Continuance intention, E-WOM, Motives, Satisfaction

Driver Behaviours of Road Users in Klang Valley, Malaysia
Mohd Nasir Nawawi, Nizam Ahmat, Hazman Samsudin, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Page 38-49   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Reckless drivers have been identified as the main cause of road accidents in most countries. Malaysia is no exception and has recorded a sharp increase in total vehicle accidents by 93 percent from 2000 to 2015 with an increase in mortality rate by 17 percent. Although various preventive measures had been taken, accident statistics continue to rise every year. This study aims to clustering four behavioural driving of road users in Klang Valley using the instrument of Drivers Behaviour Questionnaires and the relationship these factors had with several drivers‟ characteristics variables. A total of 328 drivers were randomly assigned to complete the survey and the finding shows that 10.7 percent of drivers are likely to behave aggressively and 4.3 percent have the intention or purposely violate the rules. Both groups of driver behaviours are very dangerous to other drivers and this behaviour is seen to be significantly related to gender. Even though the study found that the percentages of drivers who commit aggressive as well as ordinary violations are small, but they are akin to time bombs since they use roads on daily basis to commute to work and social activities. 

Driver behaviours, Road users, DBQ, Klang Valley

Consumer Perceived Value in Sustaining Recycling Behaviour
Noorasikin M. M., Mashitoh. Y, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Maisarah. Ahmad, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Khairul Akmaliah. A, International Islamic University Malaysia

Page 50-64   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Recycling has imparted meaningful experience and perceived value from individual‟s recycling activities. Consumer perceived value (CPV) is important in defining consumers‟ experience that connects with one‟s goals, inclinations and mental models; perceived valuable and beneficial, thus motivate sustainable behavior. This study sought to understand how ethical consumer perceived value (ECPV) influences the sustaining of recycling behavior. Nine interviews were conducted at The Federal Territory of Putrajaya for this interpretive study. It identifies two taxonomies of ethical perceived value (EPV) in individual‟s sustainable recycling experience. First, ethically desirable value (EDV) taxonomy (six drivers), second, spiritual/religious value taxonomy (three drivers). This paper concludes with the value-map taxonomy of ECPV on Recycling to guide in mapping a strategic social marketing practice in Malaysia‟s government policy to motivate good social conduct among individual and society. 

Recycling behavior, Consumer perceived value, Ethical perceived value, Spiritual/religious perceived value, Marketing

Young Malaysian Consumers’ Perception Towards Zero Wastes
Ahmad Hariza Hashim, Chong Han Xi and Che Wei Sien, University Putra Malaysia
Page 65-77   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The globalization of Western consumption patterns marked by throw-away consumer culture is one of the contributing causes of waste and pollution problems. The increasing number of waste has become a problem that should be given utmost attention by the population. Zero waste practices can be a solution for this. In this research, an investigation on how young consumers perceive zero waste practices, reasoning for those practices, as well as factors affecting their perceptions towards zero waste practices has been carried out. Qualitative research method based on the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) has been carried out among UPM year 2 students. Young Malaysian consumers‟ perception towards zero wastes can generally be categorized into four; consumption practices, resources used, disposal of products, and environment. Overall, Malaysian young consumers see zero wastes concept as a system in managing waste minimization starting from the upstream of the consumption process. They stated that they need to understand and appreciate zero waste concepts and later to practice them in their day to day activities and make them a habit before convincing others to practice them too. They need role models and guidance on the correct ways of segregation and disposal of wastes. They emphasize on the importance of government’s policy on zero waste because in order to change behaviors, the role of policy is important to facilitate sustainable ones. 


Examining the Behavioural Intention to Save in a Voluntary Retirement Fund in Malaysia
Radduan Yusof, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Mohamad Fazli Sabri, Husniyah Abd. Rahim, Zuroni Md Jusoh, University Putra Malaysia

Page 78-102 |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


This study utilised the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) to examine the intention to save in voluntary retirement funds in Malaysia. Three hundred and thirty-four (n=334) usable samples were obtained via a purposive multistage cluster sampling technique. The data was analysed to assess the determinants predicted by the DTPB through structural equation modelling using the PLS-SEM. The results revealed that attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural controls have significant effects on a person‟s intention to save in a voluntary retirement fund, albeit to a varying degree. The path analysis indicated perceived behavioural controls as the strongest predictor, followed by attitude and subjective norms. These three constructs explain 58% of the variance in the intention to save in a voluntary fund. When the model in this study further analysed the antecedents of attitude, it found that the relative advantages positively influenced attitude, compatibility had a negative influence, and complexity had no significant value. With regards to subjective norms, both external and internal norms significantly influenced the construct. Finally, both self-efficacy and facilitating conditions had significant effects towards perceived behavioural controls. Predicting a person‟s intention to save in a voluntary retirement fund is an important issue and the findings of this study would have practical implications on policy makers and commercial marketers alike, as it would help to encourage retirement savings through voluntary funds to prevent financial insufficiency in the golden age. 

Voluntary retirement fund, Social security, Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviours, Retirement savings

The Mediation Effect of Self-Coping Mechanism between Financial Strains and Financial Security of Single Mothers in Malaysia
Siti Yuliandi, International Islamic University Malaysia
Mohamad Fazli Sabri, Husniyah Abd Rahim, Syuhaily Osman, University Putra Malaysia
Page 103-123   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The main objective of this study was to examine the psychological aspect of self-coping mechanisms in influencing the relationship between financial strains and financial security of single mothers. A multistage random sampling was used to gather the data of 600 single mothers from six single mother associations registered under the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development in Malaysia. The data were statistically analysed using descriptive analysis of Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Structural Equation Modelling. There were positive significant relationships found between self-coping mechanisms, financial strains, and financial security. The structural equation of financial security model showed a relatively good fit to the data obtained in the study. The self-coping mechanisms were distinguished as a mediator in the relationships between financial strains and financial security. The self-coping mechanisms illustrated a moderate relationship (r = 0.427) in the financial security model. In testing the mediation effect, the indirect mediation existed in the relationships between financial strains and financial security. The findings of this have implied that single mother required coping strategies such as social support program or financial education. This study seems to support the importance of behavioural finance in line with notable empirical findings and the theoretical reasoning in understanding financial security of single mothers. Thus, government and non-profit organisation play crucial role to provide social support programme and financial education programme for single mothers. 

Financial security, Financial strains, Self-coping mechanism, Single mothers

Halal Food Consumption as Perceived by the Non-Muslim in Malaysia
Nasruddin Yunos, Zulkifli Mohamad, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Mohd. Alikhsan Ghazali, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Mohd. Daud Awang, University Putra Malaysia

Page 124- 135   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


Halal food is the food handled according to the Sharia law and the food is subjected by the approved certification systems which provide guarantee to consumers that the food is free from any forbidden components guided by the Islamic law. The halal food is suitable not for only Muslims, but also for the non-Muslims. The outcomes of this study based on interviews were presented with reviewed literatures to answer three questions which were regarding on the non-Muslim’s understandings about the concept of halal, the contributing factors towards halal food consumption among non-Muslim, and confusions related to halal food. The study found that despite the lack of understanding about the concept of halal, the non-Muslim accepted halal food as a part of their food choices. Furthermore, the lack of information and confusion about the halal label were identified as main area of confusions related to halal food. This finding helps to enhance an understanding among the diverse ethnicities in Malaysia, and to generate revenues and enhance marketability of halal food explicitly. 

Halal, Food, Malaysia, Label, Confusion

Factors That Influence the Behaviour of Household Solid Waste Management towards Zero Waste
Zuroni Md Jusoh, Afida Mastura Muhammad Arif, Syuhaily Osman, Roslina Mat Salleh, Nurul Aini A Kadir,
University Putra Malaysia
Page 136-152   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The study aims to examine the relationship between knowledge, attitude, subjective norms and behaviour of household solid waste management towards zero waste among urban households in eight states in Peninsular Malaysia that have implemented and enforced regulations under the Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act 2007 (Act 672). The study also examines the factors that influence the behaviour of household solid waste management. A total of 605 respondents were involved in this study where they were selected through simple random sampling using quantitative techniques through a questionnaire. Data obtained were analysed using SPSS software. The Pearson Correlation Test is used to examine the relationship between two variables, while Multiple Linear Regression is used to examine the factors that influence the behaviour of household solid waste management. The result shows that knowledge scores are high because the respondents have awareness of the importance of managing household solid waste. Meanwhile, subjective norms score is at a fair level. For attitude and behavioural scores, it was also positive as respondents are involved in solid waste management activities. The findings show that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and behaviour (r = 0.136 **, p = 0.001), a significant relationship between attitude and behaviour (r = 0.175 **, p = 0.000) and also a significant relationship between subjective norms and behaviour (r = 0.472 **, p = 0.000). Multiple Linear Regression analysis also found that knowledge, attitude and subjective norms factors influenced the behaviour of household solid waste management (adjusted R2= .254, F = 69.371 and p <0.01). This shows that the predictor factors ability to explain influencing the behaviour of household solid waste management is as high as 25.4%. In conclusion, knowledge, attitude and subjective norms as predictor variables influence the behaviour of household solid waste management. Therefore, in line with the findings of the study, governments and stakeholders need to play important roles in increasing household knowledge, attitude, subjective norms and behaviour towards household solid waste management among households in the states that have implemented and enforced regulations under the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 (Act 672). 

Knowledge, Attitude, Subjective norms, Behaviour, Household solid waste

To Grab or not to Grab?: Passenger Ride Intention towards E-Hailing Services
Boon-Chui Teo, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Muhamad Azimulfadli Mustaffa, Amir Iqbal Mohd Rozi

Page 153-1
63   |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The introduction of e-hailing or ride-sharing services in Malaysia has revolutionized the personal transportation industry. However, early adopters were skeptical and unsure on acceptance of such services due to issues including lack of regulatory control, driver credibility, competition and resistance from conventional taxi drivers. E-hailing was unheard until recently and this is a new area of study to understand passenger ride perception and behavior. Hence, this study aims to determine factors influencing passenger ride intention towards e-hailing. Methodology utilised data collected through personal interviews with the manager of an e-hailing company. Self-administered and online surveys on 200 respondents selected via convenience sampling were conducted. Analysis using Smart PLS generated findings on perceived price, safety, convenience, accessibility and content marketing as significant factors in predicting passenger ride intention. Implications in terms of passenger safety on policy making to authorities and e-hailing companies are discussed as major concerns in this relatively new hail and ride service. 

E-hailing, Ride-sharing, Passenger ride intention, Perceived price, Accessibility, Safety, Content marketing, Convenience

Profile and Differences in Financial Literacy: Empirical Evidence
Nuradibah Mokhtar, Thinagaran A/L Moga Dass, University Putra Malaysia
Mohamad Fazli Sabri, Catherine S F Ho, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Page 164- 185
  |      Download PDF   |   ABSTRACT PREVIEW


The increasing cost of living in Malaysia has resulted in individuals and households being more mindful of their wealth management. Financial crises and world geopolitical issues have caused much volatility in returns and market volatility. These economic challenges have impacted the way Malaysians save, spend, manage risks and invest in order to preserve their livelihood. It is therefore vital to understand financial instruments and markets in order to better manage investments and wealth. This research aims to study the level of financial literacy among Malaysians across gender, income, age and ethnicity group. It applies a quantitative study method with a self-administered questionnaire to obtain relevant data. A total sample of 2000 respondents is obtained and results reveal that unfortunately, the majority of Malaysians possess only moderate level of financial literacy. In addition, there are significant differences in female, who are in the above the RM7000 income group, 30 to 39 years old and Chinese in terms of financial literacy. Findings from the study provide a better understanding of the level of Malaysians‟ financial literacy and implication on policy objectives to further strengthen this area through targeted sustainable financial education. 

Financial literacy, Gender, Age, Income, Ethnicity