1. Manuscripts must be in English and should not exceed 10,000 words, including diagrams, figures, tables, etc. An abstract not exceeding 150 words.
  2. All submissions must be original and should not have been previously accepted for publication in a journal, conference proceedings or be under review at another conference or publications,
  3. All submissions must adhere to the ethics in publishing, in particular the avoidance of plagiarism. Manuscripts are subject to a double-blind review process.
  4. The manuscripts’ contents shall be the authors’ sole responsibility, and publication does not imply the concurrence of the Editorial Board or the publishers.
  5. All submissions require language editing proof. Please consider using a copy editing or language editing service. You can either do this before submission or at the revision stage. Please note that the use of editing service is at your own expense and does not ensure that your article will be selected for peer review or accepted for publication.
Formatting Requirements

Follow the prescribed format

All manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.

Title [Arial 14, bold]
KEYWORDS [Arial 10, bold]
Heading 1 [Arial 11, bold]
Heading 2 [Arial 11]
Heading 3 [Arial 11, italics]
Table Caption [Arial 11, bold]
References (APA  7th) [Arial 11]
Acknowledgement [Arial 11]

Please click here to access the manuscript template.

Title page

  • Titles must be concise, informative, and often used in information-retrieval systems. Thus, avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
  • Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate each author’s given name(s) and family name(s) and check that all names are accurately spelt. You can add your name between parentheses behind the English transliteration in your script.
  • Below the names, present the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done). Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and the email address of each author.
  • As stated in the provided template, the corresponding author is responsible for all refereeing, publication, and post-publication stages. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the email address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
  • Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting, a ‘Present address’ (or ‘Permanent address’) may be indicated as a footnote to that author’s name. The address at which the author did the work must be retained as the main affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
  • The contribution of each author in the manuscript must be clearly stated. Use the following link as your guide to structuring the author’s contribution statement: https://www.elsevier.com/authors/policies-and-guidelines/credit-author-statement


  • A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should briefly state the purpose of the research, the principal results, and the significant conclusions.
  • The use of references should be avoided, but if essential, cite the author(s) and year(s). In addition, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but, if necessary, they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
  • The word count for the abstract should not be more than 150.


After the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords organised in order of importance, use British or American spelling, and avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (for example, ‘and’, ‘of’).

Acknowledgments /funding sources

  • Place the acknowledgments/funding sources at the end of the title page.
  • List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance with the funder’s requirements:

Funding: For example, the work was supported by the Jabatan Kebajikan Masyarakat (Department of Social Welfare) [grant numbers 1234, 4567]; the Yayasan Warisan Anak Selangor, Shah Alam [grant number 1234]; and Khazanah Nasional Berhad [grant number 1234].

  • If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:

This research received no specific grant from the public, commercial, or not-for-profit funding agencies.

Special Note to Authors

  • Each footnote and its corresponding in-text callout should be formatted in numerical order of appearance utilising superscript. The superscripted numerals should follow all punctuation, with the exception of dashes and parentheses.
  • Math formulae should be typed directly into the body of text using MathType.
  • Images (i.e., anything labelled “figure”) should be at least 300 dpi, with the width ranging between 30 – 190 mm (85 – 539 pt.).
  • Any manuscript which does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revision before publication.