Exploratory Factor Analysis on Acceptance of Artificial Intelligence as Online Healthcare Product Sales Advisor Among Consumers of Guardian Pharmaceutical Outlets in Malaysia

Faridah Md Darus, Peck-Leong Tan, Hamidah Md Yusop
Arshad Ayub Graduate Business School, Universiti Teknologi MARA

DOI: https://doi.org/10.60016/majcafe.v32.18


Abstract

Switching from human to artificial intelligence (AI) as online health sales advisors significantly impact sales. AI has been shown to influence customer purchases and adapt quickly to changes in online retail. While AI enhances efficiency and personalisation in sales, it also introduces ethical dilemmas, such as job loss and bias, alongside consumer scepticism about its accuracy and trustworthiness. Integrating AI into pharmacy practices demands a deep understanding of its effects on pharmacists’ roles, signaling a significant shift in healthcare delivery. This study aims to explore and confirm the seven Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 1 (UTAUT1) construct as a robust framework that can be utilized in the consumer acceptance of AI technologies in healthcare retail settings. The participants in the study were patrons of the Guardian Pharmacy in the Klang Valley region. The research team modified 46 questions from an earlier study, employing a dual translation method that involved translating the questionnaire from English to Malay and then back to English to better align with the demographics of the study group. The experts assessed and authenticated these revised statements to ensure their relevance and accuracy, focusing on content and appearance authenticity. The study analyzed and confirmed 103 responses using the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) technique. The EFA results indicated that each construct’s items were grouped into one component with factor loading higher than 0.6, with the total variance explained ranging from 69% to 90% and overall internal reliability of 0.944. This study enriches existing knowledge by validating the UTAUT1 framework as a robust framework in assessing consumer acceptance towards AI integration in healthcare sales, marking a significant shift in healthcare delivery and underscoring the need for a nuanced understanding of AI’s implications on pharmacists’ roles amidst ethical and consumer.

Keywords:  artificial intelligence, technology acceptance, online sales advisors